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Keywords:

  • Staphylococcus aureus;
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae;
  • Neisseria;
  • Enterococcus

Abstract

A number of ways and means have evolved to provide resistance to eubacteria challenged by β-lactams. This review is focused on pathogens that resist by expressing low-affinity targets for these antibiotics, the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Even within this narrow focus, a great variety of strategies have been uncovered such as the acquisition of an additional low-affinity PBP, the overexpression of an endogenous low-affinity PBP, the alteration of endogenous PBPs by point mutations or homologous recombination or a combination of the above.