SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ameyama S, Onodera S, Takahata M, Minami S, Maki N, Endo K, Goto H, Suzuki H & Oishi Y (2002) Mosaic-like structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 Gene (penA) in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 37443749.
  • Antignac A, Boneca IG, Rousselle JC, Namane A, Carlier JP, Vazquez JA, Fox A, Alonso JM & Taha MK (2003) Correlation between alterations of the penicillin-binding protein 2 and modifications of the peptidoglycan structure in Neisseria meningitidis with reduced susceptibility to penicillin G. J Biol Chem 278: 3152931535.
  • Arbeloa A, Hugonnet JE, Sentilhes AC, Josseaume N, Dubost L, Monsempes C, Blanot D, Brouard JP & Arthur M (2004a) Synthesis of mosaic peptidoglycan cross-bridges by hybrid peptidoglycan assembly pathways in gram-positive bacteria. J Biol Chem 279: 4154641556.
  • Arbeloa A, Segal H, Hugonnet JE, Josseaume N, Dubost L, Brouard JP, Gutmann L, Mengin-Lecreulx D & Arthur M (2004b) Role of class a penicillin-binding proteins in PBP5-mediated beta-lactam resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. J Bacteriol 186: 12211228.
  • Asahi Y & Ubukata K (1998) Association of a thr-371 substitution in a conserved amino acid motif of penicillin-binding protein 1A with penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 22672273.
  • Asahi Y, Takeuchi Y & Ubukata K (1999) Diversity of substitutions within or adjacent to conserved amino acid motifs of penicillin-binding protein 2X in cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43: 12521255.
  • Barcus VA, Ghanekar K, Yeo M, Coffey TJ & Dowson CG (1995) Genetics of high level penicillin resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. FEMS Microbiol Lett 126: 299303.
  • Beadle BM, Nicholas RA & Shoichet BK (2001) Interaction energies between beta-lactam antibiotics and E. coli penicillin-binding protein 5 by reversible thermal denaturation. Protein Sci 10: 12541259.
  • Bellido F, Vladoianu IR, Auckenthaler R, Suter S, Wacker P, Then RL & Pechere JC (1989) Permeability and penicillin-binding protein alterations in Salmonella muenchen: stepwise resistance acquired during beta-lactam therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 33: 11131115.
  • Bellido F, Veuthey C, Blaser J, Bauernfeind A & Pechere JC (1990) Novel resistance to imipenem associated with an altered PBP-4 in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. J Antimicrob Chemother 25: 5768.
  • Bergström S, Norlander L, Norqvist A & Normark S (1978) Contribution of a TEM-1-like beta-lactamase to penicillin pesistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 13: 618623.
  • Bowler LD, Zhang QY, Riou JY & Spratt BG (1994) Interspecies recombination between the penA genes of Neisseria meningitidis and commensal Neisseria species during the emergence of penicillin resistance in N. meningitidis: natural events and laboratory simulation. J Bacteriol 176: 333337.
  • Brannigan JA, Tirodimos IA, Zhang QY, Dowson CG & Spratt BG (1990) Insertion of an extra amino acid is the main cause of the low affinity of penicillin-binding protein 2 in penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mol Microbiol 4: 913919.
  • Busscher JF, Van Duijkeren E & Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MM (2006) The prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in healthy horses in the Netherlands. Vet Microbiol 113: 131136.
  • Carapito R, Chesnel L, Vernet T & Zapun A (2006) Pneumococcal beta-lactam resistance due to a conformational change in penicillin-binding protein 2x. J Biol Chem 281: 17711777.
  • Chambers HF, Sachdeva MJ & Hackbarth CJ (1994) Kinetics of penicillin binding to penicillin-binding proteins of Staphylococcus aureus. Biochem J 301 (Part 1): 139144.
  • Chesnel L, Zapun A, Mouz N, Dideberg O & Vernet T (2002) Increase of the deacylation rate of PBP2x from Streptococcus pneumoniae by single point mutations mimicking the class a beta-lactamases. Eur J Biochem 269: 16781683.
  • Chesnel L, Pernot L, Lemaire D, Champelovier D, Croize J, Dideberg O, Vernet T & Zapun A (2003) The structural modifications induced by the M339F substitution in PBP2x from Streptococcus pneumoniae further decreases the susceptibility to beta-lactams of resistant strains. J Biol Chem 278: 4444844456.
  • Chesnel L, Carapito R, Croize J, Dideberg O, Vernet T & Zapun A (2005) Identical penicillin-binding domains in penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates with different levels of beta-lactam resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 28952902.
  • Chi F, Nolte O, Bergmann C, Ip M & Hakenbeck R (2007) Crossing the barrier: evolution and spread of a major class of mosaic pbp2x in Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. mitis and S. oralis. Int J Med Microbiol 297: 503512.
  • Clairoux N, Picard M, Brochu A, Rousseau N, Gourde P, Beauchamp D, Parr TR Jr, Bergeron MG & Malouin F (1992) Molecular basis of the non-beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36: 15041513.
  • Coffey TJ, Dowson CG, Daniels M, Zhou J, Martin C, Spratt BG & Musser JM (1991) Horizontal transfer of multiple penicillin-binding protein genes, and capsular biosynthetic genes, in natural populations of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 5: 22552260.
  • Coffey TJ, Daniels M, McDougal LK, Dowson CG, Tenover FC & Spratt BG (1995) Genetic analysis of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with high-level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39: 13061313.
  • Coffey TJ, Daniels M, Enright MC & Spratt BG (1999) Serotype 14 variants of the Spanish penicillin-resistant serotype 9V clone of Streptococcus pneumoniae arose by large recombinational replacements of the cpsA-pbp1a region. Microbiology 145 (Part 8): 20232031.
  • Coque JJ, Liras P & Martin JF (1993) Genes for a beta-lactamase, a penicillin-binding protein and a transmembrane protein are clustered with the cephamycin biosynthetic genes in Nocardia lactamdurans. EMBO J 12: 631639.
  • Couto I, Wu SW, Tomasz A & De Lencastre H (2003) Development of methicillin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri by transcriptional activation of the mecA homologue native to s. J Bacteriol 185: 645653.
  • Dabernat H, Delmas C, Seguy M, Pelissier R, Faucon G, Bennamani S & Pasquier C (2002) Diversity of beta-lactam resistance-conferring amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 of Haemophilus influenzae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 22082218.
  • Davies TA, Shang W & Bush K (2006) Activities of ceftobiprole and other β-lactams against Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates from the United States with defined substitutions in penicillin-binding proteins PBP1a, PBP2b and PBP2x. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 25302532.
  • De Lencastre H, Wu SW, Pinho MG, Ludovice AM, Filipe S, Gardete S, Sobral R, Gill S, Chung M & Tomasz A (1999) Antibiotic resistance as a stress response: complete sequencing of a large number of chromosomal loci in Staphylococcus aureus strain COL that impact on the expression of resistance to methicillin. Microb Drug Resist 5: 163175.
  • DeLoney CR & Schiller NL (2000) Characterization of an in vitro-selected amoxicillin-resistant strain of Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44: 33683373.
  • De Pedro MA, Holtje JV & Schwarz H (2002) Fast lysis of Escherichia coli filament cells requires differentiation of potential division sites. Microbiology 148: 7986.
  • Dessen A, Mouz N, Gordon E, Hopkins J & Dideberg O (2001) Crystal structure of PBP2x from a highly penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolate: a mosaic framework containing 83 mutations. J Biol Chem 276: 4510645112.
  • Di Guilmi AM, Mouz N, Petillot Y, Forest E, Dideberg O & Vernet T (2000) Deacylation kinetics analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x mutants resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 284: 240246.
  • Dougherty TJ (1985) Analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae peptidoglycan by reverse-phase, high-pressure liquid chromatography. J Bacteriol 163: 6974.
  • Dougherty TJ (1986) Genetic analysis and penicillin-binding protein alterations in Neisseriagonorrhoeae with chromosomally mediated resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 30: 649652.
  • Dougherty TJ, Koller AE & Tomasz A (1980) Penicillin-binding proteins of penicillin-susceptible and intrinsically resistant Neisseriagonorrhoeae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 18: 730737.
  • Dowson CG, Hutchison A, Brannigan JA, George RC, Hansman D, Linares J, Tomasz A, Smith JM & Spratt BG (1989a) Horizontal transfer of penicillin-binding protein genes in penicillin-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcuspneumoniae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 88428846.
  • Dowson CG, Hutchison A & Spratt BG (1989b) Extensive re-modelling of the transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein 2B of a penicillin-resistant South African isolate of Streptococcuspneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 3: 95102.
  • Dowson CG, Hutchison A, Woodford N, Johnson AP, George RC & Spratt BG (1990) Penicillin-resistant viridans streptococci have obtained altered penicillin-binding protein genes from penicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcuspneumoniae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 58585862.
  • Duez C, Zorzi W, Sapunaric F, Amoroso A, Thamm I & Coyette J (2001) The penicillin resistance of Enterococcusfaecalis JH2-2r results from an overproduction of the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP4 and does not involve a psr-like gene. Microbiology 147: 25612569.
  • Du Plessis M, Smith AM & Klugman KP (2000) Analysis of penicillin-binding protein lb and 2a genes from Streptococcuspneumoniae. Microb Drug Resist 6: 127131.
  • Du Plessis M, Bingen E & Klugman KP (2002) Analysis of penicillin-binding protein genes of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 23492357.
  • El Kharroubi A, Jacques P, Piras G, Van Beeumen J, Coyette J & Ghuysen JM (1991) The Enterococcus hirae R40 penicillin-binding protein 5 and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-binding protein 2 are similar. Biochem J 280: 463469.
  • Ender M, McCallum N, Adhikari R & Berger-Bachi B (2004) Fitness cost of SCCmec and methicillin resistance levels in Staphylococcusaureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 22952297.
  • Enright MC & Spratt BG (1999) Extensive variation in the ddl gene of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae results from a hitchhiking effect driven by the penicillin-binding protein 2b gene. Mol Biol Evol 16: 16871695.
  • Ferroni A & Berche P (2001) Alterations to penicillin-binding proteins 1A, 2B and 2X amongst penicillin-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 23F from the nasopharyngeal flora of children. J Med Microbiol 50: 828832.
  • Filipe SR & Tomasz A (2000) Inhibition of the expression of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae by inactivation of cell wall muropeptide branching genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 48914896.
  • Fontana R, Cerini R, Longoni P, Grossato A & Canepari P (1983) Identification of a streptococcal penicillin-binding protein that reacts very slowly with penicillin. J Bacteriol 155: 13431350.
  • Fontana R, Grossato A, Rossi L, Cheng YR & Satta G (1985) Transition from resistance to hypersusceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics associated with loss of a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein in a Streptococcusfaecium mutant highly resistant to penicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 28: 678683.
  • Fontana R, Aldegheri M, Ligozzi M, Lopez H, Sucari A & Satta G (1994) Overproduction of a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein and high-level ampicillin resistance in Enterococcusfaecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38: 19801983.
  • Fuda C, Suvorov M, Vakulenko SB & Mobashery S (2004) The basis for resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus. J Biol Chem 279: 4080240806.
  • Fuda C, Hesek D, Lee M, Morio K, Nowak T & Mobashery S (2005) Activation for catalysis of penicillin-binding protein 2a from Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by bacterial cell wall. J Am Chem Soc 127: 20562057.
  • Fuda C, Hesek D, Lee M, Heilmayer W, Novak R, Vakulenko SB & Mobashery S (2006) Mechanistic basis for the action of new cephalosporin antibiotics effective against methicillin- and wancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem 281: 1003510041.
  • Garcia-Bustos J & Dougherty TJ (1987) Alterations in peptidoglycan of Neisseriagonorrhoeae induced by sub-MICs of beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31: 178182.
  • Garcia-Bustos J & Tomasz A (1990) A biological price of antibiotic resistance: major changes in the peptidoglycan structure of penicillin-resistant pneumococci. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 54155419.
  • Garcia-Castellanos R, Mallorqui-Fernandez G, Marrero A, Potempa J, Coll M & Gomis-Ruth FX (2004) On the transcriptional regulation of methicillin resistance: MecI repressor in complex with its operator. J Biol Chem 279: 1788817896.
  • Gehrlein M, Leying H, Cullmann W, Wendt S & Opferkuch W (1991) Imipenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumanii is due to altered penicillin-binding proteins. Chemotherapy 37: 405412.
  • Georgopapadakou NH, Smith SA & Bonner DP (1982) Penicillin-binding proteins in a Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to specific beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 22: 172175.
  • Gerrits MM, Schuijffel D, Van Zwet AA, Kuipers EJ, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM & Kusters JG (2002) Alterations in penicillin-binding protein 1A confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Helicobacterpylori. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 22292233.
  • Giesbrecht P, Kersten T, Maidhof H & Wecke J (1998) Staphylococcal cell wall: morphogenesis and fatal variations in the presence of penicillin. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62: 13711414.
  • Gill MJ, Simjee S, Al-Hattawi K, Robertson BD, Easmon CS & Ison CA (1998) Gonococcal resistance to beta-lactams and tetracycline involves mutation in loop 3 of the porin encoded at the penB locus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 27992803.
  • Goffin C & Ghuysen JM (2002) Multimodular penicillin-binding proteins: an enigmatic family of orthologs and paralogs. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62: 10791093.
  • Gordon E, Mouz N, Duee E & Dideberg O (2000) The crystal structure of the penicillin-binding protein 2x from Streptococcus pneumoniae and its acyl-enzyme form: implication in drug resistance. J Mol Biol 299: 477485.
  • Gotoh N, Nunomura K & Nishino T (1990) Resistance of Pseudomonasaeruginosa to cefsulodin: modification of penicillin-binding protein 3 and mapping of its chromosomal gene. J Antimicrob Chemother 25: 513523.
  • Graves-Woodward K & Pratt RF (1998) Reaction of soluble penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus with beta-lactams and acyclic substrates: kinetics in homogeneous solution. Biochem J 332 (Part 3): 755761.
  • Grebe T & Hakenbeck R (1996) Penicillin-binding proteins 2b and 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae are primary resistance determinants for different classes of beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40: 829834.
  • Gutkind GO, Ogueta SB, De Urtiaga AC, Mollerach ME & De Torres RA (1990) Participation of PBP 3 in the acquisition of dicloxacillin resistance in Listeriamonocytogenes. J Antimicrob Chemother 25: 751758.
  • Hackbarth CJ, Kocagoz T, Kocagoz S & Chambers HF (1995) Point mutations in Staphylococcusaureus PBP 2 gene affect penicillin-binding kinetics and are associated with resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39: 103106.
  • Hagman KE, Pan W, Spratt BG, Balthazar JT, Judd RC & Shafer WM (1995) Resistance of Neisseriagonorrhoeae to antimicrobial hydrophobic agents is modulated by the mtrRCDE efflux system. Microbiology 141 (Part 3): 611622.
  • Hakenbeck R, Tarpay M & Tomasz A (1980) Multiple changes of penicillin-binding proteins in penicillin-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17: 364371.
  • Hakenbeck R, Tornette S & Adkinson NF (1987) Interaction of non-lytic beta-lactams with penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Gen Microbiol 133 (Part 3): 755760.
  • Hakenbeck R, Konig A, Kern I, Van Der Linden M, Keck W, Billot-Klein D, Legrand R, Schoot B & Gutmann L (1998) Acquisition of five high-Mr penicillin-binding protein variants during transfer of high-level beta-lactam resistance from Streptococcusmitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol 180: 18311840.
  • Han SR, Bhakdi S, Maeurer MJ, Schneider T & Gehring S (1999) Stable and unstable amoxicillin resistance in Helicobacterpylori: should antibiotic resistance testing be performed prior to eradication therapy? J Clin Microbiol 37: 27402741.
  • Hartman BJ & Tomasz A (1984) Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein associated with beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcusaureus. J Bacteriol 158: 513516.
  • Hasegawa K, Chiba N, Kobayashi R, Murayama SY, Iwata S, Sunakawa K & Ubukata K (2004) Rapidly increasing prevalence of beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilusinfluenzae type b in patients with meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 15091514.
  • Hebeisen P, Heinze-Krauss I, Angehrn P, Hohl P, Page MGP & Then RL (2001) In vitro and in vivo properties of Ro 63–9141, a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45: 825836.
  • Hedge PJ & Spratt BG (1985a) Amino acid substitutions that reduce the affinity of penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichiacoli for cephalexin. Eur J Biochem 151: 111121.
  • Hedge PJ & Spratt BG (1985b) Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by re-modelling the active site of an E. coli penicillin-binding protein. Nature 318: 478480.
  • Henze U, Sidow T, Wecke J, Labischinski H & Berger-Bachi B (1993) Influence of femB on methicillin resistance and peptidoglycan metabolism in Staphylococcusaureus. J Bacteriol 175: 16121620.
  • Henze UU & Berger-Bachi B (1996) Penicillin-binding protein 4 overproduction increases beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcusaureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40: 21212125.
  • Hiramatsu K, Cui L, Kuroda M & Ito T (2001) The emergence and evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus. Trends Microbiol 9: 486493.
  • Hoskins J, Matsushima P, Mullen DL, Tang J, Zhao G, Meier TI, Nicas TI & Jaskunas SR (1999) Gene disruption studies of penicillin-binding proteins 1a, 1b, and 2a in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol 181: 65526555.
  • Hujer AM, Kania M, Gerken T, Anderson VE, Buynak JD, Ge X, Caspers P, Page MGP, Rice LB & Bonomo RA (2005) Structure-activity relationships of different β-lactam antibiotics against a soluble form of Enterococcus faecium PBP5, a type II bacterial transpeptidase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 612618.
  • Ito M, Deguchi T, Mizutani KS, Yasuda M, Yokoi S, Ito S, Takahashi Y, Ishihara S, Kawamura Y & Ezaki T (2005) Emergence and spread of Neisseriagonorrhoeae clinical isolates harboring mosaic-like structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 in central Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 137143.
  • Ito T, Katayama Y, Asada K, Mori N, Tsutsumimoto K, Tiensasitorn C & Hiramatsu K (2001) Structural comparison of three types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec integrated in the chromosome in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45: 13231336.
  • Jamin M, Damblon C, Millier S, Hakenbeck R & Frere JM (1993) Penicillin-binding protein 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae: enzymic activities and interactions with beta-lactams. Biochem J 292 (Part 3): 735741.
  • Jevons MP, Coe AW & Parker MT (1963) Methicillin resistance in staphylococci. Lancet 1: 904907.
  • Jureen R, Mohn SC, Harthug S, Haarr L & Langeland N (2004) Role of penicillin-binding protein 5 C-terminal amino acid substitutions in conferring ampicillin resistance in Norwegian clinical strains of Enterococcusfaecium. Apmis 112: 291298.
  • Kaczmarek FS, Gootz TD, Dib-Hajj F, Shang W, Hallowell S & Cronan M (2004) Genetic and molecular characterization of beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilusinfluenzae with unusually high resistance to ampicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 16301639.
  • Kell CM, Jordens JZ, Daniels M, Coffey TJ, Bates J, Paul J, Gilks C & Spratt BG (1993) Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-resistant pneumococci isolated in Nairobi, Kenya. Infect Immun 61: 43824391.
  • Klare I, Rodloff AC, Wagner J, Witte W & Hakenbeck R (1992) Overproduction of a penicillin-binding protein is not the only mechanism of penicillin resistance in Enterococcusfaecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36: 783787.
  • Kosowska K, Jacobs MR, Bajaksouzian S, Koeth L & Appelbaum PC (2004) Alterations of penicillin-binding proteins 1A, 2X, and 2B in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates for which amoxicillin MICs are higher than penicillin MICs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 40204022.
  • Krauss J, Van Der Linden M, Grebe T & Hakenbeck R (1996) Penicillin-binding proteins 2x and 2b as primary PBP targets in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb Drug Resist 2: 183186.
  • Kwon DH, Dore MP, Kim JJ, Kato M, Lee M, Wu JY & Graham DY (2003) High-level beta-lactam resistance associated with acquired multidrug resistance in Helicobacterpylori. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 21692178.
  • Laible G & Hakenbeck R (1987) Penicillin-binding proteins in beta-lactam-resistant laboratory mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 1: 355363.
  • Laible G, Spratt BG & Hakenbeck R (1991) Interspecies recombinational events during the evolution of altered PBP 2x genes in penicillin-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 5: 19932002.
  • Leski TA & Tomasz A (2005) Role of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) in the antibiotic susceptibility and cell wall cross-linking of Staphylococcusaureus: evidence for the cooperative functioning of PBP2, PBP4, and PBP2A. J Bacteriol 187: 18151824.
  • Ligozzi M, Pittaluga F & Fontana R (1996) Modification of penicillin-binding protein 5 associated with high-level ampicillin resistance in Enterococcusfaecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40: 354357.
  • Lim D & Strynadka NC (2002) Structural basis for the beta lactam resistance of PBP2a from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus. Nat Struct Biol 9: 870876.
  • Lleo MM, Canepari P, Cornaglia G, Fontana R & Satta G (1987) Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of beta-lactams against Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecium are associated with saturation of different penicillin-binding proteins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31: 16181626.
  • Lu WP, Sun Y, Bauer MD, Paule S, Koenigs PM & Kraft WG (1999) Penicillin-binding protein 2a from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus: kinetic characterization of its interactions with beta-lactams using electrospray mass spectrometry. Biochemistry 38: 65376546.
  • Lu WP, Kincaid E, Sun Y & Bauer MD (2001) Kinetics of beta-lactam interactions with penicillin-susceptible and -resistant penicillin-binding protein 2x proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Involvement of acylation and deacylation in beta-lactam resistance. J Biol Chem 276: 3149431501.
  • Lujan R, Zhang QY, Saez Nieto JA, Jones DM & Spratt BG (1991) Penicillin-resistant isolates of Neisserialactamica produce altered forms of penicillin-binding protein 2 that arose by interspecies horizontal gene transfer. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 35: 300304.
  • Malouin F, Schryvers AB & Bryan LE (1987) Cloning and expression of genes responsible for altered penicillin-binding proteins 3a and 3b in Haemophilusinfluenzae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31: 286291.
  • Markowitz SM (1980) Isolation of an ampicillin-resistant, non-beta-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus influenzae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17: 8083.
  • Martin C, Sibold C & Hakenbeck R (1992) Relatedness of penicillin-binding protein 1a genes from different clones of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in South Africa and Spain. Embo J 11: 38313836.
  • Mascher T, Heintz M, Zahner D, Merai M & Hakenbeck R (2006) The CiaRH system of Streptococcus pneumoniae prevents lysis during stress induced by treatment with cell wall inhibitors and by mutations in pbp2x involved in beta-lactam resistance. J Bacteriol 188: 19591968.
  • Matic V, Bozdogan B, Jacobs MR, Ubukata K & Appelbaum PC (2003) Contribution of beta-lactamase and PBP amino acid substitutions to amoxicillin/clavulanate resistance in beta-lactamase-positive, amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant Haemophilus influenzae. J Antimicrob Chemother 52: 10181021.
  • McDougal LK, Rasheed JK, Biddle JW & Tenover FC (1995) Identification of multiple clones of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39: 22822288.
  • McGee L, McDougal L, Zhou J et al. (2001) Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the pneumococcal molecular epidemiology network. J Clin Microbiol 39: 25652571.
  • Mendelman PM, Chaffin DO, Stull TL, Rubens CE, Mack KD & Smith AL (1984) Characterization of non-beta-lactamase-mediated ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 26: 235244.
  • Mendelman PM, Campos J, Chaffin DO, Serfass DA, Smith AL & Saez-Nieto JA (1988) Relative penicillin G resistance in Neisseriameningitidis and reduced affinity of penicillin-binding protein 3. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 32: 706709.
  • Moellering RC Jr, Korzeniowski OM, Sande MA & Wennersten CB (1979) Species-specific resistance to antimicrobial synergism in Streptococcusfaecium and Streptococcusfaecalis. J Infect Dis 140: 203208.
  • Munoz R, Dowson CG, Daniels M, Coffey TJ, Martin C, Hakenbeck R & Spratt BG (1992) Genetics of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 6: 24612465.
  • Mouz N, Gordon E, Di Guilmi AM, Petit I, Petillot Y, Dupont Y, Hakenbeck R, Vernet T & Dideberg O (1998) Identification of a structural determinant for resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in gram-positive bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1340313406.
  • Mouz N, Di Guilmi AM, Gordon E, Hakenbeck R, Dideberg O & Vernet T (1999) Mutations in the active site of penicillin-binding protein PBP2x from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Role in the specificity for beta-lactam antibiotics. J Biol Chem 274: 1917519180.
  • Murray BE (1992) Beta-lactamase-producing enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36: 23552359.
  • Nagai K, Davies TA, Jacobs MR & Appelbaum PC (2002) Effects of amino acid alterations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 1a, 2b, and 2x on PBP affinities of penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefditoren, cefuroxime, cefprozil, and cefaclor in 18 clinical isolates of penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant pneumococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 12731280.
  • Neuwirth C, Siebor E, Duez JM, Pechinot A & Kazmierczak A (1995) Imipenem resistance in clinical isolates of Proteusmirabilis associated with alterations in penicillin-binding proteins. J Antimicrob Chemother 36: 335342.
  • Nichol KA, Zhanel GG & Hoban DJ (2002) Penicillin-binding protein 1A, 2B, and 2X alterations in Canadian isolates of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 32613264.
  • Nordmann P, Nicolas MH & Gutmann L (1993) Penicillin-binding proteins of Rhodococcusequi: potential role in resistance to imipenem. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37: 14061409.
  • Obara M & Nakae T (1991) Mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Acinetobactercalcoaceticus. J Antimicrob Chemother 28: 791800.
  • Okamoto T, Yoshiyama H, Nakazawa T, Park ID, Chang MW, Yanai H, Okita K & Shirai M (2002) A change in PBP1 is involved in amoxicillin resistance of clinical isolates of Helicobacterpylori. J Antimicrob Chemother 50: 849856.
  • Oliva M, Dideberg O & Field MJ (2003) Understanding the acylation mechanisms of active-site serine penicillin-recognizing proteins: a molecular dynamics simulation study. Proteins 53: 88100.
  • Ono S, Muratani T & Matsumoto T (2005) Mechanisms of resistance to imipenem and ampicillin in Enterococcusfaecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 29542958.
  • Osaki Y, Sanbongi Y, Ishikawa M, Kataoka H, Suzuki T, Maeda K & Ida T (2005) Genetic approach to study the relationship between penicillin-binding protein 3 mutations and Haemophilusinfluenzae beta-lactam resistance by using site-directed mutagenesis and gene recombinants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 28342839.
  • Overweg K, Bogaert D, Sluijter M, De Groot R & Hermans PW (2001) Molecular characteristics of penicillin-binding protein genes of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in the Netherlands. Microb Drug Resist 7: 323334.
  • Page MGP (2006) Anti-MRSA beta-lactams in development. Curr Opin Pharmacol 6: 480485.
  • Pagliero E, Chesnel L, Hopkins J, Croize J, Dideberg O, Vernet T & Di Guilmi AM (2004) Biochemical characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2b and its implication in beta-lactam resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 18481855.
  • Paik J, Kern I, Lurz R & Hakenbeck R (1999) Mutational analysis of the Streptococcus pneumoniae bimodular class A penicillin-binding proteins. J Bacteriol 181: 38523856.
  • Paradkar AS, Aidoo KA, Wong A & Jensen SE (1996) Molecular analysis of a beta-lactam resistance gene encoded within the cephamycin gene cluster of Streptomycesclavuligerus. J Bacteriol 178: 62666274.
  • Pares S, Mouz N, Petillot Y, Hakenbeck R & Dideberg O (1996) X-ray structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae PBP2x, a primary penicillin target enzyme. Nat Struct Biol 3: 284289.
  • Parr TR Jr & Bryan LE (1984) Mechanism of resistance of an ampicillin-resistant, beta-lactamase-negative clinical isolate of Haemophilusinfluenzae type b to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 25: 747753.
  • Paul R, Postius S, Melchers K & Schafer KP (2001) Mutations of the Helicobacterpylori genes rdxA and pbp1 cause resistance against metronidazole and amoxicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45: 962965.
  • Pereira SF, Henriques AO, Pinho MG, De Lencastre H & Tomasz A (2007) Role of PBP1 in cell division of Staphylococcusaureus. J Bacteriol 189: 35253531.
  • Perez JL, Riera L, Valls F, Berrocal CI & Berrocal L (1987) A comparison of the in-vitro activity of seventeen antibiotics against Streptococcusfaecalis. J Antimicrob Chemother 20: 357362.
  • Pernot L, Chesnel L, Le Gouellec A, Croize J, Vernet T, Dideberg O & Dessen A (2004) A PBP2x from a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae exhibits an alternative mechanism for reduction of susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics. J Biol Chem 279: 1646316470.
  • Pierre J, Boisivon A & Gutmann L (1990a) Alteration of PBP 3 entails resistance to imipenem in Listeriamonocytogenes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34: 16951698.
  • Pierre J, Williamson R, Bornet M & Gutmann L (1990b) Presence of an additional penicillin-binding protein in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusepidermidis, Staphylococcushaemolyticus, Staphylococcushominis, and Staphylococcussimulans with a low affinity for methicillin, cephalothin, and cefamandole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34: 16911694.
  • Pinho MG, De Lencastre H & Tomasz A (2001a) An acquired and a native penicillin-binding protein cooperate in building the cell wall of drug-resistant staphylococci. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 1088610891.
  • Pinho MG, Filipe SR, De Lencastre H & Tomasz A (2001b) Complementation of the essential peptidoglycan transpeptidase function of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) by the drug resistance protein PBP2A in Staphylococcusaureus. J Bacteriol 183: 65256531.
  • Pucci MJ & Dougherty TJ (2002) Direct quantitation of the numbers of individual penicillin-binding proteins per cell in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 184: 588591.
  • Pucci MJ, Hinks ET, Dicker DT, Higgins ML & Daneo-Moore L (1986) Inhibition of beta-lactam antibiotics at two different times in the cell cycle of Streptococcusfaecium ATCC 9790. J Bacteriol 165: 682688.
  • Raze D, Dardenne O, Hallut S, Martinez-Bueno M, Coyette J & Ghuysen JM (1998) The gene encoding the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 3r in Enterococcus hirae S185R is borne on a plasmid carrying other antibiotic resistance determinants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 534539.
  • Reichmann P, Konig A, Marton A & Hakenbeck R (1996) Penicillin-binding proteins as resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb Drug Resist 2: 177181.
  • Reichmann P, Konig A, Linares J, Alcaide F, Tenover FC, McDougal L, Swidsinski S & Hakenbeck R (1997) A global gene pool for high-level cephalosporin resistance in commensal Streptococcus species and Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Infect Dis 176: 10011012.
  • Rice LB, Carias LL, Hutton-Thomas R, Sifaoui F, Gutmann L & Rudin SD (2001) Penicillin-binding protein 5 and expression of ampicillin resistance in Enterococcusfaecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45: 14801486.
  • Rice LB, Bellais S, Carias LL, Hutton-Thomas R, Bonomo RA, Caspers P, Page MGP & Gutmann L (2004) Impact of specific pbp5 mutations on expression of β-lactam resistance in Enterococcusfaecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 30283032.
  • Ropp PA, Hu M, Olesky M & Nicholas RA (2002) Mutations in ponA, the gene encoding penicillin-binding protein 1, and a novel locus, penC, are required for high-level chromosomally mediated penicillin resistance in Neisseriagonorrhoeae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 769777.
  • Rybkine T, Mainardi JL, Sougakoff W, Collatz E & Gutmann L (1998) Penicillin-binding protein 5 sequence alterations in clinical isolates of Enterococcusfaecium with different levels of beta-lactam resistance. J Infect Dis 178: 159163.
  • Saez-Nieto JA, Lujan R, Martinez-Suarez JV, Berron S, Vazquez JA, Vinas M & Campos J (1990) Neisserialactamica and Neisseriapolysaccharea as possible sources of meningococcal beta-lactam resistance by genetic transformation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34: 22692272.
  • Sanbongi Y, Ida T, Ishikawa M, Osaki Y, Kataoka H, Suzuki T, Kondo K, Ohsawa F & Yonezawa M (2004) Complete sequences of six penicillin-binding protein genes from 40 Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates collected in Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 22442250.
  • Sauvage E, Kerff F, Terrak M, Ayala J & Charlier P (2008) The penicillin-binding proteins: structure and role in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiol Rev 32: doi: DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2008.00105.x
  • Sauvage E, Kerff F, Fonze E et al. (2002) The 2.4-A crystal structure of the penicillin-resistant penicillin-binding protein PBP5fm from Enterococcusfaecium in complex with benzylpenicillin. Cell Mol Life Sci 59: 12231232.
  • Schnellmann C, Gerber V, Rossano A, Jaquier V, Panchaud Y, Doherr MG, Thomann A, Straub R & Perreten V (2006) Presence of new mecA and mph(C) variants conferring antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the skin of horses before and after clinic admission. J Clin Microbiol 44: 44444454.
  • Schuster C, Dobrinski B & Hakenbeck R (1990) Unusual septum formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants with an alteration in the d,d-carboxypeptidase penicillin-binding protein 3. J Bacteriol 172: 64996505.
  • Severin A, Figueiredo AM & Tomasz A (1996) Separation of abnormal cell wall composition from penicillin resistance through genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol 178: 17881792.
  • Sibold C, Henrichsen J, Konig A, Martin C, Chalkley L & Hakenbeck R (1994) Mosaic pbpX genes of major clones of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae have evolved from pbpX genes of a penicillin-sensitive Streptococcusoralis. Mol Microbiol 12: 10131023.
  • Sifaoui F, Kitzis MD & Gutmann L (1996) In vitro selection of one-step mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to different oral beta-lactam antibiotics is associated with alterations of PBP2x. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40: 152156.
  • Sifaoui F, Arthur M, Rice L & Gutmann L (2001) Role of penicillin-binding protein 5 in expression of ampicillin resistance and peptidoglycan structure in Enterococcusfaecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45: 25942597.
  • Smith AM & Klugman KP (1995) Alterations in penicillin-binding protein 2B from penicillin-resistant wild-type strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39: 859867.
  • Smith AM & Klugman KP (1998) Alterations in PBP 1A essential-for high-level penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 13291333.
  • Smith AM & Klugman KP (2001) Alterations in MurM, a cell wall muropeptide branching enzyme, increase high-level penicillin and cephalosporin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45: 23932396.
  • Smith AM & Klugman KP (2003) Site-specific mutagenesis analysis of PBP 1A from a penicillin-cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 387389.
  • Smith AM & Klugman KP (2005) Amino acid mutations essential to production of an altered PBP 2X conferring high-level beta-lactam resistance in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 46224627.
  • Smith AM, Feldman C, Massidda O, McCarthy K, Ndiweni D & Klugman KP (2005) Altered PBP 2A and its role in the development of penicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone resistance in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 20022007.
  • Song JH, Yang JW, Jin JH et al. (2000) Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Korea. The Asian network for Surveillance of resistant pathogens (ANSORP) study group. J Clin Microbiol 38: 16411644.
  • Spratt BG (1978) Escherichiacoli resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics through a decrease in the affinity of a target for lethality. Nature 274: 713715.
  • Spratt BG (1988) Hybrid penicillin-binding proteins in penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseriagonorrhoeae. Nature 332: 173176.
  • Spratt BG, Zhang QY, Jones DM, Hutchison A, Brannigan JA & Dowson CG (1989) Recruitment of a penicillin-binding protein gene from Neisseriaflavescens during the emergence of penicillin resistance in Neisseriameningitidis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 89888992.
  • Spratt BG, Bowler LD, Zhang QY, Zhou J & Smith JM (1992) Role of interspecies transfer of chromosomal genes in the evolution of penicillin resistance in pathogenic and commensal Neisseria species. J Mol Evol 34: 115125.
  • Stranden AM, Ehlert K, Labischinski H & Berger-Bachi B (1997) Cell wall monoglycine cross-bridges and methicillin hypersusceptibility in a femAB null mutant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus. J Bacteriol 179: 916.
  • Thomas B, Wang Y & Stein RL (2001) Kinetic and mechanistic studies of penicillin-binding protein 2x from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Biochemistry 40: 1581115823.
  • Tomasz A, Drugeon HB, De Lencastre HM, Jabes D, McDougall L & Bille J (1989) New mechanism for methicillin resistance in Staphylococcusaureus: clinical isolates that lack the PBP 2a gene and contain normal penicillin-binding proteins with modified penicillin-binding capacity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 33: 18691874.
  • Tristram S, Jacobs MR & Appelbaum PC (2007) Antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilusinfluenzae. Clin Microbiol Rev 20: 368389.
  • Ubukata K, Shibasaki Y, Yamamoto K, Chiba N, Hasegawa K, Takeuchi Y, Sunakawa K, Inoue M & Konno M (2001) Association of amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 with beta-lactam resistance in beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilusinfluenzae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45: 16931699.
  • Ubukata K, Chiba N, Hasegawa K, Kobayashi R, Iwata S & Sunakawa K (2004) Antibiotic susceptibility in relation to penicillin-binding protein genes and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains responsible for meningitis in Japan, 1999 to 2002. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 14881494.
  • Urban C, Go E, Mariano N & Raha JJ (1995) Interaction of sulbactam, clavulanic acid and tazobactam with penicillin-binding proteins of imipenem-resistant and -susceptible Acinetobacterbaumannii. FEMS Microbiol Lett 125: 193197.
  • Utsui Y & Yokota T (1985) Role of an altered penicillin-binding protein in methicillin- and cephem-resistant Staphylococcusaureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 28: 397403.
  • Van Zwet AA, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Thijs JC, Van Der Wouden EJ, Gerrits MM, Kusters JG & Vandenbrouke-Grauls CM (1998) Stable amoxicillin resistance in Helicobacterpylori. Lancet 352: 1595.
  • Weber B, Ehlert K, Diehl A, Reichmann P, Labischinski H & Hakenbeck R (2000) The fib locus in Streptococcus pneumoniae is required for peptidoglycan crosslinking and PBP-mediated beta-lactam resistance. FEMS Microbiol Lett 188: 8185.
  • Wexler HM & Halebian S (1990) Alterations to the penicillin-binding proteins in the Bacteroidesfragilis group: a mechanism for non-beta-lactamase mediated cefoxitin resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother 26: 720.
  • Williamson R, Le Bouguenec C, Gutmann L & Horaud T (1985) One or two low affinity penicillin-binding proteins may be responsible for the range of susceptibility of Enterococcusfaecium to benzylpenicillin. J Gen Microbiol 131 (Part 8): 19331940.
  • Wu S, De Lencastre H & Tomasz A (1998) Genetic organization of the mecA region in methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcussciuri. J Bacteriol 180: 236242.
  • Yamane A, Nakano H, Asahi Y, Ubukata K & Konno M (1996) Directly repeated insertion of 9-nucleotide sequence detected in penicillin-binding protein 2B gene of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40: 12571259.
  • Yasuda R, Kawano J, Onda H, Takagi M, Shimizu A & Anzai T (2000) Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from healthy horses in Japan. Am J Vet Res 61: 14511455.
  • Zervosen A, Lu WP, Chen Z, White RE, Demuth TP Jr & Frere JM (2004) Interactions between penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and two novel classes of PBP inhibitors, arylalkylidene rhodanines and arylalkylidene iminothiazolidin-4-ones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 961969.
  • Zhang HZ, Hackbarth CJ, Chansky KM & Chambers HF (2001) A proteolytic transmembrane signaling pathway and resistance to beta-lactams in staphylococci. Science 291: 19621965.
  • Zhao G, Meier TI, Hoskins J & McAllister KA (2000) Identification and characterization of the penicillin-binding protein 2a of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its possible role in resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44: 17451748.
  • Zhou J, Enright MC & Spratt BG (2000) Identification of the major Spanish clones of penicillin-resistant pneumococci via the Internet using multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol 38: 977986.
  • Zighelboim S & Tomasz A (1980) Penicillin-binding proteins of multiply antibiotic-resistant South African strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17: 434442.
  • Zorzi W, Zhou XY, Dardenne O, Lamotte J, Raze D, Pierre J, Gutmann L & Coyette J (1996) Structure of the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 5 PBP5fm in wild-type and highly penicillin-resistant strains of Enterococcusfaecium. J Bacteriol 178: 49484957.