Carboxylic acid transporters form a heterogeneous group of proteins, presenting diverse mechanisms of action and regulation, and belonging to several different families. Multiple physiological and genetic studies in several organisms, from yeast to mammals, have allowed the identification of various genes coding for carboxylate transporters. Detailed understanding of the metabolism and transport of these nutrients has become more important than ever, both from a fundamental and from an applied point of view. Under a biotechnological perspective, the increasing economic value of these compounds has boosted this field of research considerably. Here we review the current knowledge on yeast carboxylate transporters, at the biochemical and molecular level, focusing also on recent biotechnological developments.