SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adhikary SP & Sahu JK (1998) UV protecting pigment of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Tolypothrix byssoidea. J Plant Physiol 153: 770773.
  • Arias S, Del Moral A, Ferrer MR, Tallon R, Quesada E & Béjar V (2003) Mauran, an exopolysaccharide produced by the halophilic bacterium Halomonas maura, with a novel composition and interesting properties for biotechnology. Extremophiles 7: 319326.
  • Ariño X, Ortega-Calvo JJ, Hernandez-Marine M & Saint-Jimenez C (1995) Effect of sulfur starvation on the morphology and ultrastructure of the cyanobacterium Gloeothece sp. PCC 6909. Arch Microbiol 163: 447453.
  • Arskold E, Svensson M, Grage H, Roos S, Radstrom P & Van Niel EWJ (2007) Environmental influences on exopolysaccharide formation in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730. Int J Food Microbiol 116: 159167.
  • Bahat-Samet E, Castro-Sowinski S & Okon Y (2004) Arabinose content of extracellular polysaccharide plays a role in cell aggregation of Azospirillum brasilense. FEMS Microbiol Lett 237: 195203.
  • Bar-Or Y & Shilo M (1987) Characterization of macromolecular flocculants produced by Phormidium sp. strain J-1 and by Anabaenopsis circularis PCC 6720. Appl Environ Microb 53: 22262230.
  • Bellezza S, Albertano P, De Philippis R & Paradossi G (2006) Exopolysaccharides of two cyanobacterial strains from roman hypogea. Geomicrobiol J 23: 301310.
  • Belnap J & Lange OL (2001) Biological soil crusts: characteristics and distribution. Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function and Management (BelnapJ & LangeOL, eds), pp. 330. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Bender J, Rodriguez-Eaton S, Ekanemesang UM & Phillips P (1994) Characterization of metal-binding bioflocculants produced by the cyanobacterial component of mixed microbial mats. Appl Environ Microb 60: 23112315.
  • Benning LG & Mountain BW (2004) The silicification of microorganisms: a comparison between in situ experiments in the field and in the laboratory. 11th International Symposium on Water–Rock Interactions (WantyR, SealR & BalkemaAA, eds), pp. 310. Taylor & Francis, London.
  • Benning LG, Phoenix VR, Yee N & Tobin MJ (2004) Molecular characterization of cyanobacterial silicification using synchrotron infrared micro-spectroscopy. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 68: 729741.
  • Bergman B, Gallon JR, Rai AN & Stal LJ (1997) N2-fixation by non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev 19: 139185.
  • Bertocchi C, Navarini L & Cesàro A (1990) Polysaccharides from cyanobacteria. Carbohyd Polym 12: 127153.
  • Bishop CT, Adams GA & Hughes EO (1954) A polysaccharide from the blue-green alga, Anabaena cylindrica. Can J Chem 32: 9991003.
  • Boels IC, Van Kranenburg R, Hugenholtz J, Kleerebezem M & DeVos WM (2001) Sugar catabolism and its impact on the biosynthesis and engineering of exopolysaccharide production in lactic acid bacteria. Int Dairy J 11: 723732.
  • Böhm GA, Pfleiderer W, Boger P & Scherer S (1995) Structure of a novel oligosaccharide–mycosporine–amino acid ultraviolet A/B sunscreen pigment from the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. J Biol Chem 270: 85368539.
  • Brown MJ & Lester JN (1982) Role of bacterial extra-cellular polymers in metal uptake in pure bacterial culture and activated sludge. Water Res 16: 15391548.
  • Brüll LP, Huang Z, Thomas-Oates JE, Paulsen BS, Cohen EH & Michaelsen TE (2000) Studies of polysaccharides from three edible species of Nostoc (cyanobacteria) with different colony morphologies: structural characterization and effect on the complement system of polysaccharides from Nostoc commune. J Phycol 36: 871881.
  • Cesàro A, Liut G, Bertocchi C, Navarini L & Urbani R (1990) Physicochemical properties of the exocellular polysaccharide from Cyanospira capsulata. Int J Biol Macromol 12: 7984.
  • Chen L, Li D & Liu Y (2003) Salt tolerance of Microcoleus vaginatus Gom., a cyanobacterium isolated from desert algal crust, was enhanced by exogenous carbohydrates. J Arid Environ 55: 645656.
  • Chen LZ, Li DH, Song LR, Hu CX, Wang GH & Liu YD (2006) Effects of salt stress on carbohydrate metabolism in desert soil alga Microcoleus vaginatus Gom. J Integr Plant Biol 48: 914919.
  • Chi Z, Su CD & Lu WD (2007) A new exopolysaccharide produced by marine Cyanothece sp. 113. Bioresource Technol 98: 13291332.
  • Choi CW, Yoo SA, Oh IH & Park SH (1998) Characterization of an extracellular flocculating substance produced by a planktonic cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. Biotechnol Lett 20: 643646.
  • Collins RF & Derrick JP (2007) Wza: a new structural paradigm for outer membrane secretory proteins? Trends Microbiol 15: 96100.
  • Colombo V, Vieira AAH & Moraes G (2004) Activity of glycosidases from freshwater heterotrophic microorganisms on the degradation of extracellular polysaccharide produced by Anabaena spiroides (Cyanobacteria). Braz J Microbiol 35: 110116.
  • Crispim CA & Gaylarde CC (2005) Cyanobacteria and biodeterioration of cultural heritage: a review. Microb Ecol 49: 19.
  • Cupac S & Gantar M (1992) Chemical composition and morphological structure of the mucilage sheath of the cyanobacterium Nostoc D. Biomed Lett 47: 133138.
  • Danin A, Dor I, Sandler A & Amit R (1998) Desert crust morphology and its relations to microbiotic succession at Mt. Sedom, Israel. J Arid Environ 38: 161174.
  • Decho AW (1990) Microbial exopolymer secretions in ocean environments: their role(s) in food webs and marine processes. Oceanogr Mar Biol 28: 73153.
  • De Philippis R & Micheletti E (2009) Heavy metal removal with exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria. Heavy Metals in the Environment (WangLK, ChenJP, HungYT & ShammasNK, eds), pp. 89122. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • De Philippis R & Vincenzini M (1998) Exocellular polysaccharides from cyanobacteria and their possible applications. FEMS Microbiol Rev 22: 151175.
  • De Philippis R & Vincenzini M (2003) Outermost polysaccharidic investments of cyanobacteria: nature, significance and possible applications. Recent Res Dev Microbiol 7: 1322.
  • De Philippis R, Sili C, Tassinato G, Vincenzini M & Materassi R (1991) Effects of growth conditions on exopolysaccharide production by Cynospira capsulata. Bioresource Technol 38: 101104.
  • De Philippis R, Margheri MC, Pelosi E & Ventura S (1993) Exopolysaccharide production by a unicellular cyanobacterium isolated from a hypersaline habitat. J Appl Phycol 5: 387394.
  • De Philippis R, Sili C & Vincenzini M (1996) Response of an exopolysaccharide-producing heterocystous cyanobacterium to changes in metabolic carbon flux. J Appl Phycol 8: 275281.
  • De Philippis R, Margheri MC, Materassi R & Vincenzini M (1998) Potential of unicellular cyanobacteria from saline environments as exopolysaccharide producers. Appl Environ Microb 64: 11301132.
  • De Philippis R, Ena A, Paperi R, Sili C & Vincenzini M (2000) Assessment of the potential of Nostoc strains from pasteur culture collection for the production of polysaccharides of applied interest. J Appl Phycol 12: 401407.
  • De Philippis R, Sili C, Paperi R & Vincenzini M (2001) Exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria and their possible exploitation: a review. J Appl Phycol 13: 293299.
  • De Philippis R, Faraloni C, Sili C & Vincenzini M (2005) Populations of exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria and diatoms in the mucilaginous benthic aggregates of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Tuscan Archipelago). Sci Total Environ 353: 360368.
  • De Philippis R, Paperi R & Sili C (2007) Heavy metal sorption by released polysaccharides and whole cultures of two exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria. Biodegradation 18: 181187.
  • De Vuyst L & Degeest B (1999) Heteropolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev 23: 153177.
  • De Vuyst L, De Vin F, Vaningelgem F & Degeest B (2001) Recent developments in the biosynthesis and applications of heteropolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. Int Dairy J 11: 687708.
  • Dillon JG, Tatsumi CM, Tandingan PG & Castenholz RW (2002) Effect of environmental factors on the synthesis of scytonemin, a UV-screening pigment, in a cyanobacterium (Chroococcidiopsis sp.). Arch Microbiol 177: 322331.
  • Dudman WF (1977) The role of surface polysaccharides in natural environments. Surface Carbohydrates of the Prokaryotic Cell (SutherlandIW, ed), pp. 357414. Academic Press, New York.
  • Dunn JH & Wolk CP (1970) Composition of the cellular envelopes of Anabaena cylindrica. J Bacteriol 130: 153158.
  • Ehling-Schulz M & Scherer S (1999) UV protection in cyanobacteria. Eur J Phycol 34: 329338.
  • Ehling-Schulz M, Bilger W & Scherer S (1997) UV-B-induced synthesis of photoprotective pigments and extracellular polysaccharides in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. J Bacteriol 179: 19401945.
  • Fay P (1992) Oxygen relations of nitrogen fixation in cyanobacteria. Microbiol Rev 56: 340373.
  • Filali Mouhim R, Cornet JF, Fontaine T, Fournet B & Dubertret G (1993) Production, isolation and characterization of the exopolysaccharide of the cyanobacterium spirulina platensis. Biotechnol Lett 15: 567575.
  • Fischer D, Schlösser UG & Pohl P (1997) Exopolysaccharide production by cyanobacteria grown in closed photobioreactors and immobilized using white cotton towelling. J Appl Phycol 9: 205213.
  • Fischer SE, Marioli JM & Mori G (2003) Effect of root exudates on the exopolysaccharide composition and the lipopolysaccharide profile of Azospirillum brasilense Cd under saline stress. FEMS Microbiol Lett 219: 5362.
  • Flaibani A, Olsen Y & Painter TJ (1989) Polysaccharides in desert reclamation: composition of exocellular proteoglycan complexes produced by filamentous blue-green and unicellular green edaphic algae. Carbohyd Res 190: 235248.
  • Fleming ED & Castenholz RW (2007) Effects of periodic desiccation on the synthesis of the UV-screening compound, scytonemin, in cyanobacteria. Environ Microbiol 9: 14481455.
  • Fleming ED & Castenholz RW (2008) Effects of nitrogen source on the synthesis of the UV-screening compound, scytonemin, in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme PCC73102. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 63: 301308.
  • Forni C, Telo FR & Caiola MG (1997) Comparative analysis of the polysaccharides produced by different species of Microcystis (Chroococcales, Cyanophyta). Phycologia 36: 181185.
  • Fresnedo O & Serra JL (1992) Effect of nitrogen starvation on the biochemistry of Phormidium laminosum (Cyanophyceae). J Phycol 28: 786793.
  • Gantar M, Rowell P, Kerby NW & Sutherland IW (1995) Role of extracellular polysaccharide in the colonization of wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) roots by N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Biol Fert Soils 19: 4148.
  • Garcia-Pichel F & Castenholz RW (1991) Characterization and biological implications of scytonemin, a cyanobacterial sheath pigment. J Phycol 27: 395409.
  • Garozzo D, Impallomeni G, Spina E, Sturiale L, Cesaro A & Cescutti P (1995) Identification of N-acetylglucosamine and 4-O-[1-carboxyethyl]mannose in the exopolysaccharide from Cyanospira capsulata. Carbohyd Res 270: 97106.
  • Garozzo D, Impallomeni G, Spina E & Sturiale L (1998) The structure of the exocellular polysaccharide from the cyanobacterium Cyanospira capsulata. Carbohyd Res 307: 113124.
  • Ghosh T, Chattopadhyay K, Marschall M, Karmakar P, Mandal P & Ray B (2009) Focus on antivirally active sulfated polysaccharides: from structure–activity analysis to clinical evaluation. Glycobiology 19: 215.
  • Girard M & Schaffer-Lequart C (2007) Gelation and resistance to shearing of fermented milk: role of exopolysaccharides. Int Dairy J 17: 666673.
  • Gloaguen V, Morvan H & Hoffmann L (1995) Released and capsular polysaccharides of Oscillatoriaceae (Cyanophyceae, Cyanobacteria). Alg Studies 78: 5369.
  • Gloaguen V, Morvan H, Hoffmann L, Plancke Y, Wieruszeski JM, Lippens G & Strecker G (1999) Capsular polysaccharide produced by the thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus. Structural study of an undecasaccharide obtained by lithium degradation. Eur J Biochem 266: 762770.
  • Gouvea SP, Vieira AAH & Lombardi AT (2005) Copper and cadmium complexation by high molecular weight materials of dominant microalgae and of water from a eutrophic reservoir. Chemosphere 60: 13321339.
  • Grilli Caiola M, Ocampo-Friedmann R & Friedmann EI (1993) Cytology of long-term desiccation in the desert cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis (Chroococcales). Phycologia 32: 315322.
  • Grilli Caiola M, Billi D & Friedmann EI (1996) Effect of desiccation on envelopes of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp. (Chroococcales). Eur J Phycol 31: 97105.
  • Grillo JF & Gibson J (1979) Regulation of phosphate accumulation in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus. J Bacteriol 140: 508517.
  • Helm RF, Huang Z, Edwards D, Leeson H, Peery W & Potts M (2000) Structural characterization of the released polysaccharide of desiccation-tolerant Nostoc commune DRH-1. J Bacteriol 182: 974982.
  • Hill DR, Peat A & Potts M (1994) Biochemistry and structure of the glycan secreted by desiccation-tolerant Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria). Protoplasma 182: 126148.
  • Hoiczyk E (1998) Structural and biochemical analysis of the sheath of Phormidium uncinatum. J Bacteriol 180: 39233932.
  • Hoiczyck E & Hansel A (2000) Cyanobacterial cell walls: news from an unusual prokaryotic envelope. J Bacteriol 182: 11911199.
  • Hu C, Liu Y, Paulsen BS, Petersen D & Klaveness D (2003a) Extracellular carbohydrate polymers from five desert soil algae with different cohesion in the stabilization of fine sand grain. Carbohyd Polym 54: 3342.
  • Hu C, Zhang D, Huang Z & Liu YD (2003b) The vertical microdistribution of cyanobacteria and green algae within desert crusts and the development of the algal crusts. Plant Soil 257: 97111.
  • Huang WJ, Lai CH & Cheng YL (2007) Evaluation of extracellular products and mutagenicity in cyanobacteria cultures separated from a eutrophic reservoir. Sci Total Environ 377: 214223.
  • Huang Z, Liu Y, Paulsen BS & Klaveness D (1998) Studies on polysaccharides from three edible species of Nostoc (Cyanobacteria) with different colony morphologies: comparison of monosaccharide compositions and viscosities of polysaccharides from field colonies and suspension cultures. J Phycol 34: 962968.
  • Huang Z, Prickett T, Potts M & Helm FR (2000) The use of the 2-aminobenzoic acid tag for oligosaccharide gel electrophoresis. Carbohyd Res 328: 7883.
  • Jensen GS, Ginsberg DI & Deapeau C (2001) Blue-green algae as an immuno-enhancer and biomodulator. JANA 3: 2430.
  • Jha MN, Venkataraman GS & Kaushik BD (1987) Response of Westiellopsis prolifica and Anabaena sp. to salt stress. World J Microb Biot 3: 307317.
  • Jolly L & Stingele F (2001) Molecular organization and functionality of exopolysaccharide gene clusters in lactic acid bacteria. Int Dairy J 11: 733745.
  • Kabata K, Okamoto C, Sasada N, Ono M, Igoshi K, Kobayashi H, Masuoka C & Ito Y (2005) Studies on the analysis of cultivation conditions and constitutive monosaccharides, and function for food in Suizenjinori (Aphanothece sacrum (Sur.) Okada) indigenous to Japan. Proc School Agric Kyushu Tokai Univ 24: 3743.
  • Kallas T, Rebière MC, Rippka R & Tandeau de Marsac N (1983) The structural nif genes of the cyanobacteria Gloeothece sp. and Calothrix sp. share homology with those of Anabaena sp., but the Gloeothece genes have a different arrangement. J Bacteriol 155: 427431.
  • Kamal F, Mehrgan H, Assadi MM & Mortazavi SA (2003) Mutagenesis of Xanthomonas campestris and selection of strain with enhanced xanthan production. Iran Biomed J 7: 567572.
  • Kawaguchi T & Decho AW (2000) Biochemical characterization of cyanobacterial extracellular polymers (EPS) from modern marine stromatolites. Prep Biochem Biotech 30: 321330.
  • Kawaguchi T & Decho AW (2002) Isolation and biochemical characterization of extracellular polymeric secretions (eps) from modern soft marine stromatolites (bahamas) and its inhibitory effect on CaCO3 precipitation. Prep Biochem Biotech 32: 5163.
  • Kidron GJ, Yaalon DH & Vonshak A (1999) Two causes for runoff initiation on microbiotic crusts: hydrophobicity and pore clogging. Soil Sci 164: 1827.
  • Kleerebezem M, Van Kranenburg R, Tuinier R, Boels IC, Zoon P, Looijesteijn E, Hugenholtz J & De Vos WM (1999) Exopolysaccharides produced by Lactococcus lactis: from genetic engineering to improved rheological properties? Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 76: 357365.
  • Kumar AS, Mody K & Jha B (2007) Bacterial exopolysaccharides – a perception. J Basic Microb 47: 103117.
  • Kumar CG, Joo HS, Choi JW, Koo YM & Chang CS (2004) Purification and characterization of an extracellular polysaccharide from haloalkalophilic Bacillus sp. I-450. Enzyme Microb Tech 34: 673681.
  • Lama L, Nicolaus B, Calandrelli V, Manca MC, Romano I & Gambacorta A (1996) Effect of growth conditions on endo- and exopolymer biosynthesis in Anabaena cylindrica 10 C. Phytochemistry 42: 655650.
  • Lapasin R, Pricl S, Bertocchi C, Navarini L, Cesàro A & De Philippis R (1992) Rheology of culture broths and exopolysaccharide of Cyanospira capsulata at different stages of growth. Carbohyd Polym 17: 110.
  • Laws A, Gu Y & Marshall V (2001) Biosynthesis, characterization, and design of bacterial exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. Biotechnol Adv 18: 597625.
  • Leppard GG, Heissenberger A & Herndl GJ (1996) Ultrastructure of marine snow, I: transmission electron microscopy methodology. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 135: 289298.
  • Li P, Liu Z & Xu R (2001) Chemical characterisation of the released polysaccharide from the cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica GR02. J Appl Phycol 13: 7177.
  • Li P, Harding SE & Liu Z (2002) Cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides: their nature and potential biotechnological applications. Biotechnol Genet Eng 18: 375404.
  • Li Q & Reeves PR (2000) Genetic variation of dTDP-l-rhamnose pathway genes in Salmonella enterica. Microbiology 146: 22912307.
  • Mancuso Nichols CA, Guezennec J & Bowman JP (2005) Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine environments with special consideration of the southern ocean, sea ice, and deep-sea hydrothermal vents: a review. Mar Biotechnol 7: 253271.
  • Marra M, Palmeri A, Ballio A, Segre A & Slodki ME (1990) Structural characterization of the exocellular polysaccharide from Cyanospira capsulata. Carbohyd Res 197: 338344.
  • Matsunaga T, Sudo H, Takemasa H, Wachi Y & Nakamura N (1996) Sulfated extracellular polysaccharide production by the halophilic cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa halophytia immobilized on light-diffusing optical fibers. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 45: 2427.
  • Matulewicz CM, Percival EE & Weigel H (1984) Water-soluble polysaccharides of antarctic and cultured Phormidium species of Cyanophyceae. Phytochemistry 23: 103105.
  • Mazor G, Kidron GJ, Vonshak A & Abeliovich A (1996) The role of cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides in structuring desert microbial crusts. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 21: 121130.
  • Mehta VB & Vaidya BS (1978) Cellular and extracellular polysaccharides of the blue-green alga Nostoc. J Exp Bot 29: 14231430.
  • Micheletti E, Colica G, Viti C, Tamagnini P & De Philippis R (2008a) Selectivity in the heavy metal removal by exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria. J Appl Microbiol 105: 8894.
  • Micheletti E, Pereira S, Mannelli F, Moradas-Ferreira P, Tamagnini P & De Philippis R (2008b) Sheathless mutant of the cyanobacterium Gloeothece sp. strain PCC 6909 with increased capacity to remove copper ions from aqueous solutions. Appl Environ Microb 74: 27972804.
  • Moore BG & Tischer RG (1964) Extracellular polysaccharides of algae: effects on life-support systems. Science 145: 586587.
  • Moore BG & Tischer RG (1965) Biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharides by the blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae. Can J Microbiol 11: 877885.
  • Moreno J, Vargas MA, Olivares H, Rivas J & Guerrero MG (1998) Exopolysaccharide production by the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 in batch and continuous culture. J Biotechnol 60: 175182.
  • Moreno J, Vargas MA, Madiedo JM, Munoz J, Rivas J & Guerrero MG (2000) Chemical and rheological properties of extracellular polysaccharide produced by the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047. Biotechnol Bioeng 67: 283290.
  • Morris GA, Li P, Puaud M, Liu Z, Mitchell JR & Harding SE (2001) Hydrodynamic characterisation of the exopolysaccharide from the halophilic cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica GR02: a comparison with xanthan. Carbohyd Polym 44: 261268.
  • Morvan H, Gloaguen V, Vebret L, Joset F & Hoffmann L (1997) Structure–function investigations on capsular polymers as a necessary step for new biotechnological applications: the case of the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus. Plant Physiol Bioch 35: 671683.
  • Mozzi F, Savoy de Giori G & Font de Valdez G (2003) UDP-galactose 4-epimerase: a key enzyme in exopolysaccharide formation by Lactobacillus casei CRL 87 in controlled pH batch cultures. J Appl Microbiol 94: 175183.
  • Navarini L, Bertocchi C, Cesàro A & Lapasin R (1990) Rheology of aqueous solutions of an extracellular polysaccharide from Cyanospira capsulata. Carbohyd Polym 12: 169187.
  • Neu TR & Marshall KC (1990) Bacterial polymers: physicochemical aspects of their interactions at interfaces. J Biomater Appl 5: 107127.
  • Neu TR, Dengler T, Jann B & Poralla K (1992) Structural studies of an emulsion-stabilizing exopolysaccharide produced by an adhesive hydrophobic Rhodococcus strain. J Gen Microbiol 138: 25312537.
  • Nicolaus B, Panico A, Lama L, Romano I, Manca MC, De Giulio A & Gambacorta A (1999) Chemical composition and production of exopolysaccharides from representative members of heterocystous and non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. Phytochemistry 52: 639647.
  • Nie ZY, Xia JL & Levert JM (2002) Fractionation and characterization of polysaccharides from cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in nitrogen-limited batch culture. J Cent South Univ T 9: 8186 (English edition).
  • Ortega-Calvo JJ & Stal LJ (1994) Sulphate-limited growth in the N2-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium Gloeothece (Nageli) sp. PCC 6909. New Phytol 128: 273281.
  • Otero A & Vincenzini M (2003) Extracellular polysaccharide synthesis by Nostoc strains as affected by N source and light intensity. J Biotechnol 102: 143152.
  • Otero A & Vincenzini M (2004) Nostoc (Cyanophyceae) goes nude: extracellular polysaccharides serve as a sink for reducing power under unbalanced C/N metabolism. J Phycol 40: 7481.
  • Panhota RS, Bianchini I & Vieira AAH (2007) Glucose uptake and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacterioplankton from an eutrophic tropical reservoir (Barra Bonita, SP-Brazil). Hydrobiologia 583: 223230.
  • Panoff JM, Priem B, Morvan H & Joset F (1988) Sulphated exopolysaccharides produced by two unicellular strains of cyanobacteria, Synechocystis PCC 6803 and 6714. Arch Microbiol 150: 558563.
  • Parikh A & Madamwar D (2006) Partial characterization of extracellular polysaccharides from cyanobacteria. Bioresource Technol 97: 18221827.
  • Parker DL, Schram B, Plude JL & Moore RE (1996) Effect of metal cations on the viscosity of a pectin-like capsular polysaccharide from the cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40. Appl Environ Microb 62: 12081213.
  • Phoenix VR, Adams DG & Konhauser KO (2000) Cyanobacterial viability during hydrothermal biomineralization. Chem Geol 169: 329338.
  • Piro G, Congedo C, Leucci MR, Lenucci M & Dalessandro G (2005) The biosynthesis of exo- and cell wall-polysaccharides is sensitive to brefeldin A in the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya VRUC 135. Plant Biosyst 139: 107112.
  • Plude JL, Parker DL, Schommer OJ, Timmerman RJ, Hagstrom SA, Joers JM & Hnasko R (1991) Chemical characterization of polysaccharide from the slime layer of the cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40. Appl Environ Microb 57: 16961700.
  • Potts M (1994) Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes. Microbiol Rev 58: 755805.
  • Potts M (1999) Mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in cyanobacteria. Eur J Phycol 34: 319328.
  • Potts M (2004) Nudist colonies: a revealing glimpse of cyanobacterial extracellular polysaccharide. J Phycol 40: 13.
  • Pugh N, Ross A, Elsohly HN, Elsohly MA & Pasco D (2001) Isolation of three high molecular weight polysaccharide preparations with potent immunostimulatory activity from Spirulina platensis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Planta Med 67: 737742.
  • Rahn A, Drummelsmith J & Whitfield C (1999) Expression of Escherichia coli group 1 K antigens: relationship to the Colanic Acid Biosynthesis Locus and the cps Genes from Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Bacteriol 181: 23072313.
  • Raungsomboon S, Amnat C, Boosya B, Duangrat I & Narumon WH (2006) Production, composition and Pb2+ adsorption characteristics of capsular polysaccharides extracted from a cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa gelatinosa. Water Res 40: 37593766.
  • Reeves PR (1993) Evolution of Salmonella O antigen variation by interspecific gene transfer on a large scale. Trends Genet 9: 1722.
  • Reeves PR, Hobbs M, Valvano MA, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, Kido N, Klena J, Maskell D, Raetz CRH & Rick PD (1996) Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. Trends Microbiol 4: 495503.
  • Ricciardi A, Parente E, Crudele MA, Zanetti F, Scolari G & Mannazzu I (2002) Exopolysaccharide production by Streptococcus thermophilus SY: production and preliminary characterization of the polymer. J Appl Microbiol 92: 297306.
  • Richert L, Golubic S, Le Guédès R, Ratiskol J, Payri C & Guezennec J (2005) Characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by cyanobacteria isolated from Polynesian microbial mats. Curr Microbiol 51: 379384.
  • Rivera-Aguilar V, Montejano G, Rodríguez-Zaragoza S & Durán-Díaz A (2006) Distribution and composition of cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens of the biological soil crusts of the Tehuacán Valley, Puebla, México. J Arid Environ 67: 208225.
  • Roberts IS (1996) The biochemistry and genetics of capsular polysaccharide production in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 50: 285315.
  • Roux JM (1996) Production of polysaccharide slime by microbial mats in the hypersaline environment of a Western Australian solar saltfield. Int J Salt Lake Res 5: 103130.
  • Ruas-Madiedo P & De los Reyes-Gavilan CG (2005) Invited review: methods for the screening, isolation, and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria. J Dairy Sci 88: 843856.
  • Ruas-Madiedo P, Hugenholtz J & Zoon P (2002) An overview of the functionality of exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria. Int Dairy J 12: 163171.
  • Samuel G & Reeves P (2003) Biosynthesis of O-antigens: genes and pathways involved in nucleotide sugar precursor synthesis and O-antigen assembly. Carbohyd Res 338: 25032519.
  • Sangar VK & Dugan PR (1972) Polysaccharide produced by Anacystis nidulans: its ecological implication. Appl Microbiol 24: 732734.
  • Sassaki GL, Gorin PA, Reis RA, Serrato RV, Elífio SL & Iacomini M (2005) Carbohydrate, glycolipid, and lipid components from the photobiont (Scytonema sp.) of the lichen, Dictyomema glabratum. Carbohydr Res 340: 18081817.
  • Satoh K, Hirai M, Nishio J, Yamaji T, Kashino Y & Koike H (2002) Recovery of photosynthetic systems during rewetting is quite rapid in a terrestrial cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune. Plant Cell Physiol 43: 170176.
  • Schaeffer DJ & Krylov VS (2000) Anti-HIV activity of extracts and compounds from algae and cyanobacteria. Ecotox Environ Safe 45: 208227.
  • Scherer S, Ernst A, Chen TW & Böger P (1984) Rewetting of drought-resistant blue-green algae: time course of water uptake and reappearance of respiration, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation. Oecologia 62: 418423.
  • Scherer S, Chen TW & Böger P (1986) Recovery of adenine-nucleotide pools in terrestrial blue-green algae after prolonged drought periods. Oecologia 68: 585588.
  • Scott C, Fletcher RL & Bremer GB (1996) Observations of the mechanisms of attachment of some marine fouling blue-green algae. Biofouling 10: 161173.
  • Sekar S & Paulraj P (2006) Strategic mining of cyanobacterial patents from the USPTO patent database and analysis of their scope and implications. J Appl Phycol 19: 277292.
  • Selbmann L, Onofri S, Fenice M, Federici F & Petruccioli M (2002) Production and structural characterization of the exopolysaccharide of the Antarctic fungus Phoma herbarum CCFEE 5080. Res Microbiol 153: 585592.
  • Shah V, Garg N & Madamwar D (1999) Exopolysaccharide production by a marine cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. Application in dye removal by its gelation phenomenon. Appl Biochem Biotech Part A 82: 8190.
  • Shah V, Ray A, Garg N & Madamwar D (2000) Characterization of the extracellular polysaccharide produced by a marine cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, and its exploitation toward metal removal from solutions. Curr Microbiol 40: 274278.
  • Shaw E, Hill DR, Brittain N, Wright DJ, Täuber U, Marand H, Helm RF & Potts M (2003) Unusual water flux in the extracellular polysaccharide of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Appl Environ Microb 69: 56795684.
  • Shepherd R, Rockey J, Sutherland IW & Roller S (1995) Novel bioemulsifiers from microorganisms for use in foods. J Biotechnol 40: 207217.
  • Shirkey B, Kovarcik DP, Wright DJ, Wilmoth G, Prickett TF & Helm RF (2000) Active Fe-containing superoxide dismutase and abundant sodF mRNA in Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria) after years of desiccation. J Bacteriol 182: 189197.
  • Skorupska A, Janczarek M, Marczak M, Mazur A & Król J (2006) Rhizobial exopolysaccharides: genetic control and symbiotic functions. Microb Cell Fact 5: 7.
  • Stewart I, Schluter PJ & Shaw GR (2006) Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health – a review. Environ Health 5: 7.
  • Su C, Zhenming C & Weidong Lu (2007) Optimization of medium and cultivation conditions for enhanced exopolysaccharide yield by marine Cyanothece sp. 113. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 25: 411417.
  • Sudo H, Burgess JG, Takemasa H, Nakamura N & Matsunaga T (1995) Sulfated exopolysaccharide production by the halophilic cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa halophytia. Curr Microbiol 30: 219222.
  • Sutherland IW (1994) Structure–function relationships in microbial exopolysaccharides. Biotechnol Adv 12: 393448.
  • Sutherland IW (1996) Extracellular polysaccharides. Biotechnology, Vol. 6 (RehmHJ & ReedG, eds), pp. 615657. VCH, Weinheim.
  • Sutherland IW (1999) Polysaccharases for microbial exopolysaccharides. Carbohyd Polym 38: 310328.
  • Sutherland IW (2001) Microbial polysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria. Int Dairy J 11: 663674.
  • Tamaru Y, Takani Y, Yoshida T & Sakamoto T (2005) Crucial role of extracellular polysaccharides in desiccation and freezing tolerance in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Appl Environ Microb 71: 73277333.
  • Tease B, Jurgens UJ, Golecki JR, Heinrich UR, Rippka R & Weckesser J (1991) Fine-structural and chemical analyses on inner and outer sheath of the cyanobacterium Gloeothece sp. PCC 6909. Antonie Van Leeüwenhoek 59: 2734.
  • Tease BE & Walker RW (1987) Comparative composition of the sheath of the cyanobacterium Gloeothece ATCC 27152 cultured with and without combined nitrogen. J Gen Microbiol 133: 33313339.
  • Tischer RG & Davis EB (1971) The effect of various nitrogen sources upon the production of extracellular polysaccharide by blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae A 37. J Exp Bot 22: 546551.
  • Tseng CT & Zhao Y (1994) Extraction, purification and identification of polysaccharides of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis (Cyanophyceae). Alg Stud 75: 303312.
  • Tsuneda S, Aikawa H, Hayashi H, Yuasa A & Hirata A (2003) Extracellular polymeric substances responsible for bacterial adhesion onto solid surface. FEMS Microbiol Lett 223: 287292.
  • Van Hijum SAFT, Kralj S, Ozimek LK, Dijkhuizen L & Van Geel-Schutten IGH (2006) Structure–function relationships of glucansucrase and fructansucrase enzymes from lactic acid bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol R 70: 157176.
  • Vaningelgem F, Zamfir M, Mozzi F, Adriany T, Vancanneyt M, Swings J & De Vuyst L (2004) Biodiversity of exopolysaccharides produced by Streptococcus thermophilus strains is reflected in their production and their molecular and functional characteristics. Appl Environ Microb 70: 900912.
  • Van Kranenburg R, Boels IC, Kleerebezem M & De Vos WM (1999) Genetics and engineering of microbial exopolysaccharides for food: approaches for the production of existing and novel polysaccharides. Curr Opin Biotech 10: 498504.
  • Vicente-García V, Ríos-Leal E, Calderón-Domínguez G, Cañizares-Villanueva RO & Olvera-Ramírez R (2004) Detection, isolation, and characterization of exopolysaccharide produced by a strain of Phormidium 94a isolated from an arid zone of Mexico. Biotechnol Bioeng 85: 306310.
  • Vincenzini M, De Philippis R, Sili C & Materassi R (1990) Studies on exopolysaccharide release by diazotrophic batch cultures of Cyanospira capsulata. Appl Microbiol Biot 34: 392396.
  • Vincenzini M, De Philippis R, Sili C & Materassi R (1993) Stability of molecular and rheological properties of the exopolysaccharide produced by Cyanospira capsulata cultivated under different growth conditions. J Appl Phycol 5: 539541.
  • Volk RB, Venzke K & Blaschek W (2007) Structural investigation of a polysaccharide released by the cyanobacterium Nostoc insulare. J Appl Phycol 19: 255262.
  • Wang WS & Tischer RG (1973) Study of the extracellular polysaccharides produced by a blue-green alga, Anabaena flos-aquae A-37. Arch Microbiol 91: 7781.
  • Wanner G, Henkelmann G, Schmidt A & Kost HP (1986) Nitrogen and sulfur starvation of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6301. An ultrastructural, morphometrical, and biochemical comparison. Z Naturforsch 41c: 741750.
  • Welman AD & Maddox IS (2003) Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria: perspectives and challenges. Trends Biotechnol 21: 269274.
  • Whitfield C (2006) Biosynthesis and assembly of capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. Annu Rev Biochem 75: 3968.
  • Whitfield C & Larue K (2008) Stop and go: regulation of chain length in the biosynthesis of bacterial polysaccharides. Nat Struct Mol Biol 15: 121123.
  • Whitfield C & Paiment A (2003) Biosynthesis and assembly of Group 1 capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli and related extracellular polysaccharides in other bacteria. Carbohyd Res 338: 24912502.
  • Whitfield C & Roberts IS (1999) Structure, assembly and regulation of expression of capsules in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 31: 13071319.
  • Whitton BA & Potts M (2000) Introduction to the cyanobacteria. The Ecology of Cyanobacteria (WhittonBA & PottsM, eds), pp. 111. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
  • Wright DJ, Smith SC, Joardar V, Scherer S, Jervis J, Warren A, Helm RF & Potts M (2005) UV irradiation and desiccation modulate the three-dimensional extracellular matrix of Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria). J Biol Chem 280: 4027140281.
  • Yamazaki M, Thorne L, Mikolajczak M, Armentrout RW & Pollock TJ (1996) Linkage of genes essential for synthesis of a polysaccharide capsule in Sphingomonas strain S88. J Bacteriol 178: 26762687.
  • Yoshimura H, Okamoto S, Tsumuraya Y & Ohmori M (2007) Group 3 sigma factor gene, sigJ, a key regulator of desiccation tolerance, regulates the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. DNA Res 14: 1324.
  • Zhang YM, Wang HL, Wang XQ, Yang WK & Zhang DY (2006) The microstructure of microbiotic crust and its influence on wind erosion for a sandy soil surface in the Gurbantunggut Desert of Northwestern China. Geoderma 132: 441449.