Editor: Dieter Haas
Quinolones: from antibiotics to autoinducers
Article first published online: 29 JUL 2010
© 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved
FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Volume 35, Issue 2, pages 247–274, March 2011
How to Cite
Heeb, S., Fletcher, M. P., Chhabra, S. R., Diggle, S. P., Williams, P. and Cámara, M. (2011), Quinolones: from antibiotics to autoinducers. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 35: 247–274. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00247.x
- Issue published online: 1 FEB 2011
- Article first published online: 29 JUL 2010
- Accepted manuscript online: 29 JUL 2010 12:00AM EST
- Received 8 June 2010; revised 25 June 2010; accepted 16 July 2010., Final version published online 25 August 2010.
- quorum sensing;
Since quinine was first isolated, animals, plants and microorganisms producing a wide variety of quinolone compounds have been discovered, several of which possess medicinally interesting properties ranging from antiallergenic and anticancer to antimicrobial activities. Over the years, these have served in the development of many synthetic drugs, including the successful fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related bacteria produce a number of 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolones, some of which exhibit antimicrobial activity. However, quinolones such as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline act as quorum-sensing signal molecules, controlling the expression of many virulence genes as a function of cell population density. Here, we review selectively this extensive family of bicyclic compounds, from natural and synthetic antimicrobials to signalling molecules, with a special emphasis on the biology of P. aeruginosa. In particular, we review their nomenclature and biochemistry, their multiple properties as membrane-interacting compounds, inhibitors of the cytochrome bc1 complex and iron chelators, as well as the regulation of their biosynthesis and their integration into the intricate quorum-sensing regulatory networks governing virulence and secondary metabolite gene expression.