Editor: Gerhard Braus
Horizontal gene and chromosome transfer in plant pathogenic fungi affecting host range
Version of Record online: 26 JAN 2011
© 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved
FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Volume 35, Issue 3, pages 542–554, May 2011
How to Cite
Mehrabi, R., Bahkali, A. H., Abd-Elsalam, K. A., Moslem, M., Ben M'Barek, S., Gohari, A. M., Jashni, M. K., Stergiopoulos, I., Kema, G. H.J. and de Wit, P. J.G.M. (2011), Horizontal gene and chromosome transfer in plant pathogenic fungi affecting host range. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 35: 542–554. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00263.x
- Issue online: 4 APR 2011
- Version of Record online: 26 JAN 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 11 JAN 2011 09:05AM EST
- Received 8 October 2010; revised 3 December 2010; accepted 11 December 2010., Final version published online 26 January 2011.
- conditionally dispensable chromosome;
- interspecies hybridization;
Plant pathogenic fungi adapt quickly to changing environments including overcoming plant disease resistance genes. This is usually achieved by mutations in single effector genes of the pathogens, enabling them to avoid recognition by the host plant. In addition, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT) provide a means for pathogens to broaden their host range. Recently, several reports have appeared in the literature on HGT, HCT and hybridization between plant pathogenic fungi that affect their host range, including species of Stagonospora/Pyrenophora, Fusarium and Alternaria. Evidence is given that HGT of the ToxA gene from Stagonospora nodorum to Pyrenophora tritici-repentis enabled the latter fungus to cause a serious disease in wheat. A nonpathogenic Fusarium species can become pathogenic on tomato by HCT of a pathogenicity chromosome from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp lycopersici, a well-known pathogen of tomato. Similarly, Alternaria species can broaden their host range by HCT of a single chromosome carrying a cluster of genes encoding host-specific toxins that enabled them to become pathogenic on new hosts such as apple, Japanese pear, strawberry and tomato, respectively. The mechanisms HGT and HCT and their impact on potential emergence of fungal plant pathogens adapted to new host plants will be discussed.