• 1
    Horwitz E.M., Gordon P.L., Koo W.K., Marx J.C., Neel M.D., McNall R.Y., Muul L., Hofmann T., Isolated allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells engraft and stimulate growth in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: Implications for cell therapy of bone, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99: 89328937, 2002.
  • 2
    Koc O.N., Gerson S.L., Cooper B.W., Dyhouse S.M., Haynesworth S.E., Caplan A.I., Lazarus H.M., Rapid hematopoietic recovery after coinfusion of autologous blood stem cells and culture-expanded marrow mesenchymal stem cells in advanced breast cancer patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy, J Clin. Oncol., 18: 307316, 2000.
  • 3
    Petite H., Viateau V., Bensaid W., Meunier A., de Pollak C., Bourguignon M., Oudina K., Sedel L., Guillemin G., Tissue-engineered bone regeneration, Nat. Biotechnol., 18: 959963, 2000.
  • 4
    Dexter T.M., Wright E.G., Krizsa F., Lajtha L.G., Regulation of haemopoietic stem cell proliferation in long term bone marrow cultures, Biomedicine., 27: 344349, 1977.
  • 5
    Calvi L.M., Adams G.B., Weibrecht K.W., Weber J.M., Olson D.P., Knight M.C., Martin R.P., Schipani E., Divieti P., Bringhurst F.R., Milner L.A., Kronenberg H.M., Scadden D.T., Osteoblastic cells regulate the haematopoietic stem cell niche, Nature, 425: 841846, 2003.
  • 6
    Friedenstein A.J., Chailakhjan R.K., Lalykina K.S., The development of fibroblast colonies in monolayer cultures of guinea- pig bone marrow and spleen cells, Cell Tissue Kinet., 3: 393403, 1970.
  • 7
    Friedenstein A.J., Osteogenetic activity of transplanted transitional epithe lium, Acta Anat. (Basel), 45: 3159, 1961.
  • 8
    Castro-Malaspina H., Gay R.E., Resnick G., Kapoor N., Meyers P., Chiarieri D., McKenzie S., Broxmeyer H.E., Moore M.A., Characterization of human bone marrow fibroblast colony-forming cells (CFU-F) and their progeny, Blood, 56: 289301, 1980.
  • 9
    Janowska-Wieczorek A., Majka M., Ratajczak J., Ratajczak M.Z., Autocrine/paracrine mechanisms in human hematopoiesis, Stem Cells, 19: 99107, 2001.
  • 10
    Koller M.R., Manchel I., Palsson B.O., Importance of parenchymal:stromal cell ratio for the ex vivo reconstitution of human hematopoiesis, Stem Cells, 15: 305313, 1997.
  • 11
    Strobel E.S., Gay R.E., Greenberg P.L., Characterization of the in vitro stromal microenvironment of human bone marrow, Int. J. Cell Cloning, 4: 341356, 1986.
  • 12
    Tavassoli M., Takahashi K., Morphological studies on long-term culture of marrow cells: characterization of the adherent stromal cells and their interactions in maintaining the proliferation of hemopoietic stem cells, Am. J. Anat., 164: 91111, 1982.
  • 13
    Castro-Malaspina H., Ebell W., Wang S., Human bone marrow fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-F), Prog. Clin. Biol. Res., 154: 209236, 1984.
  • 14
    Wang Q.R., Wolf N.S., Dissecting the hematopoietic microenvironment. VIII. Clonal isolation and identification of cell types in murine CFU-F colonies by limiting dilution, Exp. Hematol., 18: 355359, 1990.
  • 15
    Noth U., Osyczka A.M., Tuli R., Hickok N.J., Danielson K.G., Tuan R.S., Multilineage mesenchymal differentiation potential of human trabecular bone-derived cells, J. Orthop. Res., 20: 10601069, 2002.
  • 16
    Tuan R.S., Boland G., Tuli R., Adult mesenchymal stem cells and cell-based tissue engineering, Arthritis Res. Ther., 5: 3245, 2003.
  • 17
    Sarugaser R., Lickorish D., Baksh D., Hosseini M.M., Davies J.E., Human umbilical cord perivascular (HUCPV) cells: A source of mesenchymal progenitors, Stem Cells, In Review , 2004.
  • 18
    Gronthos S., Graves S.E., Ohta S., Simmons P.J., The STRO-1+ fraction of adult human bone marrow contains the osteogenic precursors, Blood, 84: 41644173, 1994.
  • 19
    Pittenger M.F., Mackay A.M., Beck S.C., Jaiswal R.K., Douglas R., Mosca J.D., Moorman M.A., Simonetti D.W., Craig S., Marshak D.R., Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells, Science, 284: 143147, 1999.
  • 20
    Minguell J.J., Erices A., Conget P., Mesenchymal stem cells, Exp Biol. Med (Maywood.), 226: 507520, 2001.
  • 21
    Tocci A., Forte L., Mesenchymal stem cell: use and perspectives, Hematol. J, 4: 9296, 2003.
  • 22
    Haynesworth S.E., Baber M.A., Caplan A.I., Cell surface antigens on human marrow-derived mesenchymal cells are detected by monoclonal antibodies, Bone, 13: 6980, 1992.
  • 23
    Vogel W., Grunebach F., Messam C.A., Kanz L., Brugger W., Buhring H.J., Heterogeneity among human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and neural progenitor cells, Haematologica, 88: 126133, 2003.
  • 24
    Simmons P.J., Torok-Storb B., CD34 expression by stromal precursors in normal human adult bone marrow, Blood, 78: 28482853, 1991.
  • 25
    Jiang Y., Jahagirdar B.N., Reinhardt R.L., Schwartz R.E., Keene C.D., Ortiz-Gonzalez X.R., Reyes M., Lenvik T., Lund T., Blackstad M., Du J., Aldrich S., Lisberg A., Low W.C., Largaespada D.A., Verfaillie C.M., Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow, Nature, 418: 4149, 2002.
  • 26
    Bruder S.P., Jaiswal N., Haynesworth S.E., Growth kinetics, self-renewal, and the osteogenic potential of purified human mesenchymal stem cells during extensive subcultivation and following cryopreservation, J. Cell Biochem., 64: 278294, 1997.
  • 27
    Colter D.C., Class R., DiGirolamo C.M., Prockop D.J., Rapid expansion of recycling stem cells in cultures of plastic-adherent cells from human bone marrow, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 97: 32133218, 2000.
  • 28
    Friedenstein A.J., Chailakhyan R.K., Latsinik N.V., Panasyuk A.F., Keiliss-Borok I.V., Stromal cells responsible for transferring the microenvironment of the hemopoietic tissues. Cloning in vitro and retransplantation in vivo, Transplantation, 17: 331340, 1974.
  • 29
    Bianchi G., Banfi A., Mastrogiacomo M., Notaro R., Luzzatto L., Cancedda R., Quarto R., Ex vivo enrichment of mesenchymal cell progenitors by fibroblast growth factor 2, Exp. Cell Res., 287: 98105, 2003.
  • 30
    Bianco P., Riminucci M., Gronthos S., Robey P.G., Bone marrow stromal stem cells: nature, biology, and potential applications, Stem Cells, 19: 180192, 2001.
  • 31
    Friedenstein A.J., Piatetzky-Shapiro I.I., Petrakova K.V., Osteogenesis in transplants of bone marrow cells, J Embryol. Exp Morphol., 16: 381390, 1966.
  • 32
    Bruder S.P., Kurth A.A., Shea M., Hayes W.C., Jaiswal N., Kadiyala S., Bone regeneration by implantation of purified, culture-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells, J Orthop. Res, 16: 155162, 1998.
  • 33
    Kadiyala S., Young R.G., Thiede M.A., Bruder S.P., Culture expanded canine mesenchymal stem cells possess osteochondrogenic potential in vivo and in vitro, Cell Transplant., 6: 125134, 1997.
  • 34
    Young R.G., Butler D.L., Weber W., Caplan A.I., Gordon S.L., Fink D.J., Use of mesenchymal stem cells in a collagen matrix for Achilles tendon repair, J. Orthop. Res., 16: 406413, 1998.
  • 35
    Awad H.A., Butler D.L., Boivin G.P., Smith F.N., Malaviya P., Huibregtse B., Caplan A.I., Autologous mesenchymal stem cell-mediated repair of tendon, Tissue Eng, 5: 267277, 1999.
  • 36
    Ferrari G., Cusella-De Angelis, G., Coletta M., Paolucci E., Stornaiuolo A., Cossu G., Mavilio F., Muscle regeneration by bone marrow-derived myogenic progenitors, Science, 279: 15281530, 1998.
  • 37
    Galmiche M.C., Koteliansky V.E., Briere J., Herve P., Charbord P., Stromal cells from human long-term marrow cultures are mesenchymal cells that differentiate following a vascular smooth muscle differentiation pathway, Blood, 82: 6676, 1993.
  • 38
    Dennis J.E., Merriam A., Awadallah A., Yoo J.U., Johnstone B., Caplan A.I., A quadripotential mesenchymal progenitor cell isolated from the marrow of an adult mouse, J. Bone Miner. Res., 14: 700709, 1999.
  • 39
    Prockop D.J., Marrow stromal cells as stem cells for non-hematopoietic tissues, Science, 276: 7174, 1997.
  • 40
    Richards M., Huibregtse B.A., Caplan A.I., Goulet J.A., Goldstein S.A., Marrow-derived progenitor cell injections enhance new bone formation during distraction, J Orthop. Res, 17: 900908, 1999.
  • 41
    Johnstone B., Yoo J.U., Autologous mesenchymal progenitor cells in articular cartilage repair, Clin. Orthop., 367: S156-S162, 1999.
  • 42
    Muraglia A., Cancedda R., Quarto R., Clonal mesenchymal progenitors from human bone marrow differentiate in vitro according to a hierarchical model, J. Cell Sci., 113: 11611166, 2000.
  • 43
    Majumdar M.K., Thiede M.A., Mosca J.D., Moorman M., Gerson S.L., Phenotypic and functional comparison of cultures of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and stromal cells, J. Cell Physiol, 176: 5766, 1998.
  • 44
    Dormady S.P., Bashayan O., Dougherty R., Zhang X.M., Basch R.S., Immortalized multipotential mesenchymal cells and the hematopoietic microenvironment, J. Hematother. Stem Cell Res., 10: 125140, 2001.
  • 45
    Osyczka A.M., Noth U., O'Connor J., Caterson E.J., Yoon K., Danielson K.G., Tuan R.S., Multilineage differentiation of adult human bone marrow progenitor cells transduced with human papilloma virus type 16 E6/E7 genes, Calcif. Tissue Int., 71: 447458, 2002.
  • 46
    Kuznetsov S.A., Krebsbach P.H., Satomura K., Kerr J., Riminucci M., Benayahu D., Robey P.G., Single-colony derived strains of human marrow stromal fibroblasts form bone after transplantation in vivo, J. Bone Miner. Res., 12: 13351347, 1997.
  • 47
    Gronthos S., Zannettino A.C., Hay S.J., Shi S., Graves S.E., Kortesidis A., Simmons P.J., Molecular and cellular characterisation of highly purified stromal stem cells derived from human bone marrow, J. Cell Sci., 116: 18271835, 2003.
  • 48
    Ohgushi H., Caplan A.I., Stem cell technology and bioceramics: from cell to gene engineering, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 48: 913927, 1999.
  • 49
    Gronthos S., Simmons P.J., The growth factor requirements of STRO-1-positive human bone marrow stromal precursors under serum-deprived conditions in vitro, Blood, 85: 929940, 1995.
  • 50
    Sekiya I., Larson B.L., Smith J.R., Pochampally R., Cui J.G., Prockop D.J., Expansion of human adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma: conditions that maximize the yields of early progenitors and evaluate their quality, Stem Cells, 20: 530541, 2002.
  • 51
    Simmons P.J., Torok-Storb B., Identification of stromal cell precursors in human bone marrow by a novel monoclonal antibody, STRO-1, Blood, 78: 5562, 1991.
  • 52
    Zvaifler N.J., Marinova-Mutafchieva L., Adams G., Edwards C.J., Moss J., Burger J.A., Maini R.N., Mesenchymal precursor cells in the blood of normal individuals, Arthritis Res, 2: 477488, 2000.
  • 53
    Campagnoli C., Roberts I.A., Kumar S., Bennett P.R., Bellantuono I., Fisk N.M., Identification of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in human first-trimester fetal blood, liver, and bone marrow, Blood, 98: 23962402, 2001.
  • 54
    Erices A., Conget P., Minguell J.J., Mesenchymal progenitor cells in human umbilical cord blood, Br. J. Haematol., 109: 235242, 2000.
  • 55
    Baksh D., Davies J.E., Zandstra P.W., Adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells are capable of adhesion-independent survival and expansion, Exp. Hematol., 31: 723732, 2003.
  • 56
    Doi M., Nagano A., Nakamura Y., Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene, EMILIN-5, and its possible involvement in skeletal development, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 313: 888893, 2004.
  • 57
    Qi H., Aguiar D.J., Williams S.M., la Pean, A., Pan W., Verfaillie C.M., Identification of genes responsible for osteoblast differentia tion from human mesodermal progenitor cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100: 33053310, 2003.
  • 58
    LaBarge M.A., Blau H.M., Biological progression from adult bone marrow to mononucleate muscle stem cell to multinucleate muscle fiber in response to injury, Cell, 111: 589601, 2002.
  • 59
    Zhao L.R., Duan W.M., Reyes M., Keene C.D., Verfaillie C.M., Low W.C., Human bone marrow stem cells exhibit neural phenotypes and ameliorate neurological deficits after grafting into the ischemic brain of rats, Exp. Neurol., 174: 1120, 2002.
  • 60
    Jiang Y., Vaessen B., Lenvik T., Blackstad M., Reyes M., Verfaillie C.M., Multipotent progenitor cells can be isolated from postnatal murine bone marrow, muscle, and brain, Exp Hematol., 30: 896904, 2002.
  • 61
    Song L., Tuan R.S., Transdifferentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, FASEB J., 18: 980982, 2004.
  • 62
    Roelen B.A., Dijke P., Controlling mesenchymal stem cell differentiation by TGFbeta family members, J. Orthop. Sci., 8: 740748, 2003.
  • 63
    Olsen B.R., Reginato A.M., Wang W., Bone development, Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol., 16: 191220, 2000.
  • 64
    Waddington R.J., Roberts H.C., Sugars R.V., Schonherr E., Differential roles for small leucine-rich proteoglycans in bone formation, Eur. Cell Mater., 6: 1221, 2003.
  • 65
    McBeath R., Pirone D.M., Nelson C.M., Bhadriraju K., Chen C.S., Cell shape, cytoskeletal tension, and RhoA regulate stem cell lineage commitment, Dev. Cell, 6: 483495, 2004.
  • 66
    Harada S., Rodan G.A., Control of osteoblast function and regulation of bone mass, Nature, 423: 349355, 2003.
  • 67
    Madras N., Gibbs A.L., Zhou Y., Zandstra P.W., Aubin J.E., Modeling stem cell development by retrospective analysis of gene expression profiles in single progenitor derived colonies, Stem Cells, 20: 230240, 2002.
  • 68
    de Boer J., Wang H.J., van Blitterswijk C., Effects of Wnt signaling on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, Tissue Eng., 10: 393401, 2004.
  • 69
    Boland G.M., Perkins G., Hall D., Tuan R.S., Wnt 3a promotes proliferation and supressess osteogenic differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells, J. Cell. Biochem, In press , 2004.
  • 70
    Willert K., Brown J.D., Danenberg E., Duncan A.W., Weissman I.L., Reya T., Yates J.R., III, Nusse R., Wnt proteins are lipid-modified and can act as stem cell growth factors, Nature, 423: 448452, 2003.
  • 71
    Reya T., Duncan A.W., Ailles L., Domen J., Scherer D.C., Willert K., Hintz L., Nusse R., Weissman I.L., A role for Wnt signalling in self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells, Nature, 423: 409414, 2003.
  • 72
    Crevensten G., Walsh A.J., Ananthakrishnan D., Page P., Wahba G.M., Lotz J.C., Berven S., Intervertebral disc cell therapy for regeneration: mesenchymal stem cell implantation in rat intervertebral discs, Ann. Biomed. Eng, 32: 430434.
  • 73
    Chamberlain J.R., Schwarze U., Wang P.R., Hirata R.K., Hankenson K.D., Pace J.M., Underwood R.A., Song K.M., Sussman M., Byers P.H., Russell D.W., Gene targeting in stem cells from individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta, Science, 303: 11981201, 2004.
  • 74
    Arinzeh T.L., Peter S.J., Archambault M.P., van den B.C., Gordon S., Kraus K., Smith A., Kadiyala S., Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells regenerate bone in a critical-sized canine segmental defe ct, J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 85-A: 19271935, 2003.
  • 75
    Grinnemo K.H., Mansson A., Dellgren G., Klingberg D., Wardell E., Drvota V., Tammik C., Holgersson J., Ringden O., Sylven C., Le Blanc, K., Xenoreactivity and engraftment of human mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into infarcted rat myocardium, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 127: 12931300, 2004.
  • 76
    Barry F.P., Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in joint disease, Novartis Found. Symp., 249: 8696, 2003.
  • 77
    Sugaya K., Potential use of stem cells in neuroreplacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, Int. Rev. Cytol., 228: 130, 2003.
  • 78
    Chapel A., Bertho J.M., Bensidhoum M., Fouillard L., Young R.G., Frick J., Demarquay C., Cuvelier F., Mathieu E., Trompier F., Dudoignon N., Germain C., Mazurier C., Aigueperse J., Borneman J., Gorin N.C., Gourmelon P., Thierry D., Mesenchymal stem cells home to injured tissues when co-infused with hematopoietic cells to treat a radiation-induced multi-organ failure syndrome, J. Gene Med., 5: 10281038, 2003.
  • 79
    Deng Y., Guo X., Yuan Q., Li S., Efficiency of adenoviral vector mediated CTLA4Ig gene delivery into mesenchymal stem cells, Chin Med. J. (Engl.), 116: 16491654, 2003.
  • 80
    Ortiz L.A., Gambelli F., McBride C., Gaupp D., Baddoo M., Kaminski N., Phinney D.G., Mesenchymal stem cell engraftment in lung is enhanced in response to bleomycin exposure and ameliorates its fibrotic effects, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100: 84078411, 2003.
  • 81
    Liechty K.W., Mackenzie T.C., Shaaban A.F., Radu A., Moseley A.M., Deans R., Marshak D.R., Flake A.W., Human mesenchymal stem cells engraft and demonstrate site-specific differentiation after in utero transplantation in sheep, Nat. Med., 6: 12821286, 2000.
  • 82
    Song L., Chau L., Sakamoto Y., Nakashima J., Koide M., Tua n R.S., Electric field-induced molecular vibration for noninvasive, high-efficiency DNA transfection, Mol. Ther., 9: 607616, 2004.
  • 83
    Haleem-Smith H., Derfoul A., Okafor C., Tuli R., Olse D., Hall D.J., Tuan R.S., Optimization of high efficiency transfecrtion of adult human mesenchymal stem cells, Molecular Biotechnology, Accepted , 2004.
  • 84
    Zimmermann S., Voss M., Kaiser S., Kapp U., Waller C.F., Martens U.M., Lack of telomerase activity in human mesenchymal stem cells, Leukemia, 17: 11461149, 2003.
  • 85
    Simonsen J.L., Rosada C., Serakinci N., Justesen J., Stenderup K., Rattan S.I., Jensen T.G., Kassem M., Telomerase expression extends the proliferative life-span and maintains the osteogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells, Nat. Biotechnol., 20: 592596, 2002.
  • 86
    Shi S., Gronthos S., Chen S., Reddi A., Counter C.M., Robey P.G., Wang C.Y., Bone formation by human postnatal bone marrow stromal stem cells is enhanced by telomerase expression, Nat. Biotechnol., 20: 587591, 2002.
  • 87
    Gronthos S., Chen S., Wang C.Y., Robey P.G., Shi S., Telomerase accelerates osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal stem cells by upregulation of CBFA1, osterix, and osteocalcin, J Bone Miner. Res, 18: 716722, 2003.
  • 88
    Friedenstein A.J., Gorskaja J.F., Kulagina N.N., Fibroblast precursors in normal and irradiated mouse hematopoietic organs, Exp. Hematol., 4: 267274, 1976.
  • 89
    Friedenstein A.J., Latzinik N.W., Grosheva A.G., Gorskaya U.F., Marrow microenvironment transfer by heterotopic transplantation of freshly isolated and cultured cells in porous sponges, Exp. Hematol., 10: 217227, 1982.
  • 90
    Mori M., Sadahira Y., Awai M., Characteristics of bone marrow fibroblastic colonies (CFU-F) formed in collagen gel, Exp. Hematol., 15: 11151120, 1987.
  • 91
    Owen M.E., Cave J., Joyner C.J., Clonal analysis in vitro of osteogenic differentiation of marrow CFU-F, J. Cell Sci., 87: 731738, 1987.
  • 92
    Caplan A.I., Mesenchymal stem cells, J Orthop. Res, 9: 64150, 1991.
  • 93
    Mori K.J., Fujitake H., Ohkubo H., Ito Y., Dexter T.M., Development of stromal cell colonies in bone marrow cell culture, Gann, 69: 689693, 1978.
  • 94
    Piersma A.H., Brockbank K.G., Ploemacher R.E., van Vliet E., Brakel-van Peer K.M., Visser P.J., Characterization of fibroblastic stromal cells from murine bone marrow, Exp. Hematol., 13: 237243, 1985.
  • 95
    Dexter T.M., Lajtha L.G., Proliferation of haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, Br. J. Haematol., 28: 525530, 1974.
  • 96
    Bianco P., Robey P.G., Marrow stromal stem cells, J. Clin. Invest., 105: 16631668, 2000.
  • 97
    Colter D.C., Sekiya I., Prockop D.J., Identification of a subpopulation of rapidly self-renewing and multipotential adult stem cells in colonies of human marrow stromal cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98: 78417845, 2001.
  • 98
    Reyes M., Lund T., Lenvik T., Aguiar D., Koodie L., Verfaillie C.M., Purification and ex vivo expansion of postnatal human marrow mesodermal progenitor cells, Blood, 98: 26152625, 2001.
  • 99
    Lazarus H.M., Haynesworth S.E., Gerson S.L., Rosenthal N.S., Caplan A.I., Ex vivo expansion and subsequent infusion of human bone marrow-derived stromal progenitor cells (mesenchymal progenitor cells): implications for therapeutic use, Bone Marrow Transplant., 16: 557564, 1995.
  • 100
    Kuznetsov S.A., Mankani M.H., Gronthos S., Satomura K., Bianco P., Robey P.G., Circulating skeletal stem cells, J. Cell Biol., 153: 11331140, 2001.
  • 101
    Reyes M., Verfaillie C.M., Characterization of multipotent adult progenitor cells, a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 938: 231233, 2001.
  • 102
    Quirici N., Soligo D., Bossolasco P., Servida F., Lumini C., Deliliers G.L., Isolation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by anti-nerve growth factor receptor antibodies, Exp Hematol., 30: 783791, 2002.
  • 103
    Suva D., Garavaglia G., Menetrey J., Chapuis B., Hoffmeyer P., Bernheim L., Kindler V., Non-hematopoietic human bone marrow contains long-lasting, pluripotential mesenchymal stem cells, J. Cell Physiol, 198: 110118, 2004.