Recent evidences suggest that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) contribute to de novo vessel formation in adults occurring as physiological and pathological responses. Emerging preclinical trials have shown that EPCs home to sites of neovascularization after ischemic events in limb and myocardium. On the basis of these aspects, EPCs are expected to develop as a key strategy of therapeutic applications for the ischemic organs. Such clinical requirements of EPCs will tentatively accelerate the translational research aiming at the devices to acquire the optimized quality and quantity of EPCs. In this review, we attempt to discuss about biological features of EPCs and speculate on the clinical potential of EPCs for therapeutic neovascularization.