SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Senger, DR, Galli, SJ, Dvorak, AM, Perruzzi, CA, Harvey, VS, Dvorak, HF. Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumulation of ascites fluid. Science 1983; 219: 9835.
  • 2
    Ferrara, N, Henzel, WJ. Pituitary follicular cells secrete a novel heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989; 161: 8518.
  • 3
    Leung, DW, Cachianes, G, Kuang, WJ, Goeddel, DV, Ferrara, N. Vascular endothelial growth factor is a secreted angiogenic mitogen. Science 1989; 246: 13061309.
  • 4
    Keck, PJ, Hauser, SD, Krivi, G, Sanzo, K, Warren, T, Feder, J, Connolly, DT. Vascular permeability factor, an endothelial cell mitogen related to PDGF. Science 1989; 246: 130912.
  • 5
    Clauss, M, Gerlach, M, Gerlach, H, Brett, J, Wang, F, Familletti, PC, Pan, YC, Olander, JV, Connolly, DT, Stern, D. Vascular permeability factor: a tumor-derived polypeptide that induces endothelial cell and monocyte procoagulant activity, and promotes monocyte migration. J Exp Med. 1990; 172: 153545.
  • 6
    Neufeld, G, Cohen, T, Gengrinovitch, S, Poltorak, Z. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors. FASEB J. 1999; 13: 922.
  • 7
    Tischer, E, Mitchell, R, Hartman, T, Silva, M, Gospodarowicz, D, Fiddes, JC, Abraham, JA. The human gene for vascular endothelial growth factor. Multiple protein forms are encoded through alternative exon splicing. J Biol Chem. 1991; 266: 1194754.
  • 8
    Hoeben, A, Landuyt, B, Highley, MS, Wildiers, H, Van Oosterom, AT, De Bruijn, EA. Vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis. Pharmacol Rev. 2004; 56: 54980.
  • 9
    Park, JE, Keller, GA, Ferrara, N. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms: differential deposition into the subepithelial extracellular matrix and bioactivity of extracellular matrix-bound VEGF. Mol Biol Cell. 1993; 4: 131726.
  • 10
    Woolard, J, Wang, WY, Bevan, HS, Qiu, Y, Morbidelli, L, Pritchard-Jones, RO, Cui, TG, Sugiono, M, Waine, E, Perrin, R, Foster, R, Digby-Bell, J, Shields, JD, Whittles, CE, Mushens, RE, Gillatt, DA, Ziche, M, Harper, SJ, Bates, DO. VEGF165b, an inhibitory vascular endothelial growth factor splice variant: mechanism of action, in vivo effect on angiogenesis and endogenous protein expression. Cancer Res. 2004; 64: 782235.
  • 11
    Olofsson, B, Pajusola, K, Kaipainen, A, von Euler, G, Joukov, V, Saksela, O, Orpana, A, Pettersson, RF, Alitalo, K, Eriksson, U. Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996; 93: 257681.
  • 12
    Gollmer, JC, Ladoux, A, Gioanni, J, Paquis, P, Dubreuil, A, Chatel, M, Frelin, C. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-b in human astrocytoma. Neurooncol. 2000; 2: 806.
  • 13
    Shintani, S, Li, C, Ishikawa, T, Mihara, M, Nakashiro, Ki, Hamakawa, H. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, B, C, and D in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncology 2004; 40: 13.
  • 14
    Kawakami, M, Furuhata, T, Kimura, Y, Yamaguchi, K, Hata, F, Sasaki, K, Hirata, K. Expression analysis of vascular endothelial growth factors and their relationships to lymph node metastasis in human colorectal cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2003; 22: 22937.
  • 15
    Joukov, V, Pajusola, K, Kaipainen, A, Chilov, D, Lahtinen, I, Kukk, E, Saksela, O, Kalkkinen, N, Alitalo, K. A novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-C, is a ligand for the Flt4 (VEGFR-3) and KDR (VEGFR-2) receptor tyrosine kinases. EMBO J. 1996; 15: 1751.
  • 16
    Lee, J, Gray, A, Yuan, J, Luoh, SM, Avraham, H, Wood, WI. Vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein: a ligand and specific activator of the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt4. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996; 93: 198892.
  • 17
    Makinen, T, Veikkola, T, Mustjoki, S, Karpanen, T, Catimel, B, Nice, EC, Wise, L, Mercer, A, Kowalski, H, Kerjaschki, D, Stacker, SA, Achen, MG, Alitalo, K. Isolated lymphatic endothelial cells transduce growth, survival and migratory signals via the VEGF-C/D receptor VEGFR-3. EMBO J. 2001; 20: 476273.
  • 18
    Achen, MG, Jeltsch, M, Kukk, E, Makinen, T, Vitali, A, Wilks, AF, Alitalo, K, Stacker, SA. Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) is a ligand for the tyrosine kinases VEGF receptor 2 (Flk1) and VEGF receptor 3 (Flt4). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998; 95: 54853.
  • 19
    Jeltsch, M, Kaipainen, A, Joukov, V, Meng, X, Lakso, M, Rauvala, H, Swartz, M, Fukumura, D, Jain, RK, Alitalo, K. Hyperplasia of lymphatic vessels in VEGF-C transgenic mice. Science 1997; 276: 14235.
  • 20
    Meyer, M, Clauss, M, Lepple-Wienhues, A, Waltenberger, J, Augustin, HG, Ziche, M, Lanz, C, Buttner, M, Rziha, HJ, de Hio, C. A novel vascular endothelial growth factor encoded by Orf virus, VEGF-E, mediates angiogenesis via signalling through VEGFR-2 (KDR) but not VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) receptor tyrosine kinases. EMBO J. 1999; 18: 36374.
  • 21
    Shibuya, M, Yamaguchi, S, Yamane, A, Ikeda, T, Tojo, A, Matsushime, H, Sato, M. Nucleotide sequence and expression of a novel human receptor-type tyrosine kinase gene (fit) closely related to the fms family. Oncogene 1990; 5: 51924.
  • 22
    Terman, BI, Carrion, ME, Kovacs, E, Rasmussen, BA, Eddy, RL, Shows, TB. Identification of a new endothelial cell growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Oncogene 1991; 6: 167783.
  • 23
    Soker, S, Takashima, S, Miao, HQ, Neufeld, G, Klagsbrun, M. Neuropilin-1 is expressed by endothelial and tumor cells as an isoform-specific receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor. Cell 1998; 92: 73545.
  • 24
    Park, JE, Chen, HH, Winer, J, Houck, KA, Ferrara, N. Placenta growth factor. Potentiation of vascular endothelial growth factor bioactivity, in vitro and in vivo, and high affinity binding to Flt-1 but not to Flk-1/KDR. J Biol Chem. 1994; 269: 2564654.
  • 25
    Tanaka, K, Yamaguchi, S, Sawano, A, Shibuya, M. Characterization of the extracellular domain in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (Flt-1 tyrosine kinase). Jpn J Cancer Res. 1997; 88: 86776.
  • 26
    Barleon, B, Sozzani, S, Zhou, D, Weich, HA, Mantovani, A, Marme, D. Migration of human monocytes in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is mediated via the VEGF receptor flt-1. Blood 1996; 87: 333643.
  • 27
    Zachary, I, Gliki, G. Signaling transduction mechanisms mediating biological actions of the vascular endothelial growth factor family. Cardiovasc Res. 2001; 49: 56881.
  • 28
    Ishida, A, Murray, J, Saito, Y, Kanthou, C, Benzakour, O, Shibuya, M, Wijelath, ES. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in smooth muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2001; 188: 35968.
  • 29
    Fan, F, Wey, JS, McCarty, MF, Belcheva, A, Liu, W, Bauer, TW, Somcio, RJ, Wu, Y, Hooper, A, Hicklin, DJ, Ellis, LM. Expression and function of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 on human colorectal cancer cells. Oncogene 2005; 24: 264753.
  • 30
    Wey, JS, Fan, F, Gray, MJ, Bauer, TW, McCarty, MF, Somcio, R, Liu, W, Evans, DB, Wu, Y, Hicklin, DJ, Ellis, LM. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 promotes migration and invasion in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Cancer 2005; 104: 42738.
  • 31
    Gille, H, Kowalski, J, Li, B, LeCouter, J, Moffat, B, Zioncheck, TF, Pelletier, N, Ferrara, N. Analysis of biological effects and signaling properties of Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and KDR (VEGFR-2). A reassessment using novel receptor-specific vascular endothelial growth factor mutants. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 322230.
  • 32
    Price, DJ, Miralem, T, Jiang, S, Steinberg, R, Avraham, H. Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the stimulation of cellular invasion and signaling of breast cancer cells. Cell Growth Differ. 2001; 12: 12935.
  • 33
    Meister, B, Grunebach, F, Bautz, F, Brugger, W, Fink, FM, Kanz, L, Mohle, R. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors in human neuroblastoma. Eur J Cancer. 1999; 35: 4459.
  • 34
    Tian, X, Song, S, Wu, J, Meng, L, Dong, Z, Shou, C. Vascular endothelial growth factor: acting as an autocrine growth factor for human gastric adenocarcinoma cell MGC803. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001; 286: 50512.
  • 35
    Galland, F, Karamysheva, A, Pebusque, MJ, Borg, JP, Rottapel, R, Dubreuil, P, Rosnet, O, Birnbaum, D. The FLT4 gene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase related to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Oncogene 1993; 8: 123340.
  • 36
    Kaipainen, A, Korhonen, J, Mustonen, T, van Hinsbergh, VW, Fang, GH, Dumont, D, Breitman, M, Alitalo, K. Expression of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 4 gene becomes restricted to lymphatic endothelium during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995; 92: 356670.
  • 37
    Fujisawa, H, Kitsukawa, T. Receptors for collapsinsemaphorins. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998; 8: 58792.
  • 38
    Soker, S, Fidder, H, Neufeld, G, Klagsbrun, M. Characterization of novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors on tumor cells that bind VEGF165 via its exon 7-encoded domain. J Biol Chem. 1996; 271: 57617.
  • 39
    Fuh, G, Garcia, KC, de Vos, AM. The interaction of neuropilin- 1 with vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor flt-1. J Biol Chem. 2000; 275: 266905.
  • 40
    Whitaker, GB, Limberg, BJ, Rosenbaum, JS. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and neuropilin-1 form a receptor complex that is responsible for the differential signaling potency of VEGF(165) and VEGF(121). J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 2552031.
  • 41
    Soker, S, Miao, HQ, Nomi, M, Takashima, S, Klagsbrun, M. VEGF165 mediates formation of complexes containing VEGFR-2 and neuropilin-1 that enhance VEGF165- receptor binding. J Cell Biochem. 2002; 85: 35768.
  • 42
    Bachelder, RE, Crago, A, Chung, J, Wendt, MA, Shaw, LM, Robinson, G, Mercurio, AM. Vascular endothelial growth factor is an autocrine survival factor for neuropilin-expressing breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 573640.
  • 43
    Barr, MP, Byrne, AM, Duffy, AM, Condron, CM, de Vocelle, M, Harriott, P, Bouchier-Hayes, DJ, Harmey, JH. A peptide corresponding to the neuropilin-1-binding site on VEGF(165) induces apoptosis of neuropilin-1- expressing breast tumour cells. Br J Cancer 2005; 92: 32833.
  • 44
    Ding, H, Wu, X, Roncari, L, Lau, N, Shannon, P, Nagy, A, Guha, A. Expression and regulation of neuropilin-1 in human astrocytomas. Int J Cancer 2000; 88: 58492.
  • 45
    Fakhari, M, Pullirsch, D, Abraham, D, Paya, K, Hofbauer, R, Holzfeind, P, Hofmann, M, Aharinejad, S. Selective upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors neuropilin-1 and −2 in human neuroblastoma. Cancer 2002; 94: 25863.
  • 46
    Lantuejoul, S, Constantin, B, Drabkin, H, Brambilla, C, Roche, J, Brambilla, E. Expression of VEGF, semaphorin SEMA3F, and their common receptors neuropilins NP1 and NP2 in preinvasive bronchial lesions, lung tumours, and cell lines. J Pathol. 2003; 200: 33647.
  • 47
    Parikh, AA, Liu, WB, Fan, F, Stoeltzing, O, Reinmuth, N, Bruns, CJ, Bucana, CD, Evans, DB, Ellis, LM. Expression and regulation of the novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor neuropilin-1 by epidermal growth factor in human pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer 2003; 98: 7209.
  • 48
    Akagi, M, Kawaguchi, M, Liu, W, McCarty, MF, Takeda, A, Fan, F, Stoeltzing, O, Parikh, AA, Jung, YD, Bucana, CD, Mansfield, PF, Hicklin, DJ, Ellis, LM. Induction of neuropilin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor by epidermal growth factor in human gastric cancer cells. Br J Cancer 2003; 88: 796802.
  • 49
    Parikh, AA, Fan, F, Liu, WB, Ahmad, SA, Stoeltzing, O, Reinmuth, N, Bielenberg, D, Bucana, CD, Klagsbrun, M, Ellis, LM. Neuropilin-1 in human colon cancer: expression, regulation, and role in induction of angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2004; 164: 213951.
  • 50
    Gluzman-Poltorak, Z, Cohen, T, Herzog, Y, Neufeld, G. Neuropilin-2 is a receptor for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) forms VEGF-145 and VEGF-165. J Biol Chem. 2000; 275: 180405.
  • 51
    Gluzman-Poltorak, Z, Cohen, T, Shibuya, M, Neufeld, G. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and neuropilin-2 form complexes. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 1868894.
  • 52
    Parenti, A, Morbidelli, L, Cui, XL, Douglas, JG, Hood, JD, Granger, HJ, Ledda, F, Ziche, M. Nitric oxide is an upstream signal of vascular endothelial growth factorinduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activation in postcapillary endothelium. J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 42206.
  • 53
    Pedram, A, Razandi, M, Levin, ER. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/Jun kinase cross-talk underlies vascular endothelial cell growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 267228.
  • 54
    Kroll, J, Waltenberger, J. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR activates multiple signal transduction pathways in porcine aortic endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1997; 272: 325217.
  • 55
    Gerber, HP, McMurtrey, A, Kowalski, J, Yan, M, Keyt, BA, Dixit, V, Ferrara, N. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates endothelial cell survival through the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase/Akt signal transduction pathway. Requirement for Flk-1/KDR activation. J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 3033643.
  • 56
    Carmeliet, P, Lampugnani, MG, Moons, L, Breviario, F, Compernolle, V, Bono, F, Balconi, G, Spagnuolo, R, Oostuyse, B, de Werchin, M, Zanetti, A, Angellilo, A, Mattot, V, Nuyens, D, Lutgens, E, Clotman, F, de Ruiter, MC, Gittenberger-de Groot, A, Poelmann, R, Lupu, F, Herbert, JM, Collen, D, de Jana, E. Targeted deficiency or cytosolic truncation of the VE-cadherin gene in mice impairs VEGF-mediated endothelial survival and angiogenesis, Cell 1999; 98: 14757.
  • 57
    Dias, S, Hattori, K, Zhu, Z, Heissig, B, Choy, M, Lane, W, Wu, Y, Chadburn, A, Hyjek, E, Gill, M, Hicklin, DJ, Witte, L, Moore, MA, Rafii, S. Autocrine stimulation of VEGFR-2 activates human leukemic cell growth and migration. J Clin Invest. 2000; 106: 51121.
  • 58
    Grosskreutz, CL, Anand-Apte, B, Duplaa, C, Quinn, TP, Terman, BI, Zetter, B, D'Amore, PA. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Microvasc Res. 1999; 58: 12836.
  • 59
    Barleon, B, Sozzani, S, Zhou, D, Weich, HA, Mantovani, A, Marme, D. Migration of human monocytes in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is mediated via the VEGF receptor flt-1. Blood 1996; 87: 333643.
  • 60
    Qi, JH, Claesson-Welsh, L. VEGF-induced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase is dependent on focal adhesion kinase. Exp Cell Res. 2001; 263: 17382.
  • 61
    Rousseau, S, Houle, F, Landry, J, Huot, J. p38 MAP kinase activation by vascular endothelial growth factor mediates actin reorganization and cell migration in human endothelial cells. Oncogene 1997; 15: 216977.
  • 62
    Bernatchez, PN, Soker, S, Sirois, MG. Vascular endothelial growth factor effect on endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and platelet-activating factor synthesis is Flk- 1-dependent. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274: 3104754.
  • 63
    Takahashi, T, Fournier, A, Nakamura, F, Wang, LH, Murakami, Y, Kalb, RG, Fujisawa, H, Strittmatter, SM. Plexin-neuropilin-1 complexes form functional semaphorin-3A receptors. Cell 1999; 99: 5969.
  • 64
    Bachelder, RE, Lipscomb, EA, Lin, X, Wendt, MA, Chadborn, NH, Eickholt, BJ, Mercurio, AM. Competing autocrine pathways involving alternative neuropilin-1 ligands regulate chemotaxis of carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2003; 63: 52303.
  • 65
    Gray, MJ, Wey, JS, Belcheva, A, McCarty, MF, Trevino, JG, Evans, DB, Ellis, LM, Gallick, GE. Neuropilin-1 suppresses tumorigenic properties in a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line lacking neuropilin-1 coreceptors. Cancer Res. 2005; 65: 366470.
  • 66
    Wey, JS, Gray, MJ, Fan, F, Belcheva, A, McCarty, MF, Stoeltzing, O, Somcio, R, Liu, W, Evans, DB, Klagsbrun, M, Gallick, GE, Ellis, LM. Overexpression of neuropilin-1 promotes constitutive MAPK signalling and chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Br J Cancer 2005; 93: 22341.
  • 67
    Ferrara, N, Carver-Moore, K, Chen, H, Dowd, M, Lu, L, O'Shea, KS, Powell-Braxton, L, Hillan, KJ, Moore, MW. Heterozygous embryonic lethality induced by targeted inactivation of the VEGF gene. Nature 1996; 380: 43942.
  • 68
    Tammela, T, Enholm, B, Alitalo, K, Paavonen, K. The biology of vascular endothelial growth factors. Cardiovasc Res. 2005; 65: 55063.
  • 69
    Veikkola, T, Karkkainen, M, Claesson-Welsh, L, Alitalo, K. Regulation of angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Cancer Res. 2000; 60: 20312.
  • 70
    Kendall, RL, Wang, G, Thomas, KA. Identification of a natural soluble form of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, FLT-1, and its heterodimerization with KDR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996; 226: 3248.
  • 71
    Dumont, DJ, Jussila, L, Taipale, J, Lymboussaki, A, Mustonen, T, Pajusola, K, Breitman, M, Alitalo, K. Cardiovascular failure in mouse embryos deficient in VEGF receptor-3. Science 1998; 282: 9469.
  • 72
    Kitsukawa, T, Shimizu, M, Sanbo, M, Hirata, T, Taniguchi, M, Bekku, Y, Yagi, T, Fujisawa, H. Neuropilin-semaphorin III/D-mediated chemorepulsive signals play a crucial role in peripheral nerve projection in mice. Neuron 1997; 19: 9951005.
  • 73
    Takashima, S, Kitakaze, M, Asakura, M, Asanuma, H, Sanada, S, Tashiro, F, Niwa, H, Miyazaki Ji, J, Hirota, S, Kitamura, Y, Kitsukawa, T, Fujisawa, H, Klagsbrun, M, Hori, M. Targeting of both mouse neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 genes severely impairs developmental yolk sac and embryonic angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002; 99: 365762.
  • 74
    Kawakami, A, Kitsukawa, T, Takagi, S, Fujisawa, H. Developmentally regulated expression of a cell surface protein, neuropilin, in the mouse nervous system. J Neurobiol. 1996; 29: 117.
  • 75
    Herzog, Y, Kalcheim, C, Kahane, N, Reshef, R, Neufeld, G. Differential expression of neuropilin-1 and neuropilin- 2 in arteries and veins. Mech Dev. 2001; 109: 1159.
  • 76
    Yuan, L, Moyon, D, Pardanaud, L, Breant, C, Karkkainen, MJ, Alitalo, K, Eichmann, A. Abnormal lymphatic vessel development in neuropilin 2 mutant mice. Development 2002; 129: 4797806.
  • 77
    Dvorak, HF, de Tmar, M, Claffey, KP, Nagy, JA, van de Water, L, Senger, DR. Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor: an important mediator of angiogenesis in malignancy and inflammation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1995; 107: 2335.
  • 78
    Takahashi, T, Ueno, H, Shibuya, M. VEGF activates protein kinase C-dependent, but Ras-independent Raf-MEKMAP kinase pathway for DNA synthesis in primary endothelial cells. Oncogene 1999; 18: 222130.
  • 79
    Reynolds, LP, Redmer, DA. Expression of the angiogenic factors, basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, in the ovary. J Anim Sci. 1998; 76: 167181.
  • 80
    Otani, N, Minami, S, Yamoto, M, Shikone, T, Otani, H, Nishiyama, R, Otani, T, Nakano, R. The vascular endothelial growth factor/fms-like tyrosine kinase system in human ovary during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84: 384551.
  • 81
    Walsh, DA, Wade, M, Mapp, PI, Blake, DR. Focally regulated endothelial proliferation and cell death in human synovium. Am J Pathol. 1998; 152: 691702.
  • 82
    Etherington, PJ, Winlove, P, Taylor, P, Paleolog, E, Miotla, JM. VEGF release is associated with reduced oxygen tensions in experimental inflammatory arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2002; 20: 799805.
  • 83
    Lee, SS, Joo, YS, Kim, WU, Min, DJ, Min, JK, Park, SH, Cho, CS, Kim, HY. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001; 19: 3214.
  • 84
    Paleolog, E. Angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res. 2002; 4: S8190.
  • 85
    Koch, AE. The role of angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis: recent developments. Ann Rheum Dis. 2000; 59: i6571.
  • 86
    Ikeda, M, Hosoda, Y, Hirose, S, Okada, Y, Ikeda, E. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms and their receptors Flt-1, KDR, and neuropilin-1 in synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis. J Pathol. 2000; 191: 42633.
  • 87
    Miotla, J, Maciewicz, R, Kendrew, J, Feldmann, M, Paleolog, E. Treatment with soluble VEGF receptor reduces disease severity in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Lab Invest. 2000; 80: 1195205.
  • 88
    Tilton, RG, Kawamura, T, Chang, K C, Ido, Y, Bjercke, RJ, Stephan, CC, Brock, TA, Williamson, JR. Vascular dysfunction induced by elevated glucose levels in rats is mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor. J Clin Invest. 1997; 99: 2192202.
  • 89
    Lim, HS, Blann, AD, Chong, AY, Freestone, B, Lip, GYH. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin- 1, and angiopoietin-2 in diabetes: implications for cardiovascular risk and effects of multifactorial intervention. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 291824.
  • 90
    Tripathi, RC, Li, J, Tripathi, BJ, Chalam, KV, Adamis, AP. Increased level of vascular endothelial growth factor in aqueous humor of patients with neovascular glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1998; 105: 2327.
  • 91
    Aiello, LP, Pierce, EA, Foley, ED, Takagi, H, Chen, H, Riddle, L, Ferrara, N, King, GL, Smith, LE. Suppression of retinal neovascularization in vivo by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using soluble VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995; 92: 1045761.
  • 92
    Ozaki, H, Seo, MS, Ozaki, K, Yamada, H, Yamada, E, Okamoto, N, Hofmann, F, Wood, JM, Campochiaro, PA. Blockade of vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor signaling is sufficient to completely prevent retinal neovascularization. Am J Pathol. 2000; 156: 697707.
  • 93
    Xia, Y-P, Li, B, Hylton, D, de Tmar, M, Yancopoulos, GD, Rudge, JS. Transgenic delivery of VEGF to mouse skin leads to an inflammatory condition resembling human psoriasis. Blood 2003; 102: 1618.
  • 94
    de Tmar, M, Brown, LF, Claffey, KP, Yeo, KT, Kocher, O, Jackman, RW, Berse, B, Dvorak, HF. Overexpression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in psoriasis. J Exp Med. 1994; 180: 11416.
  • 95
    Folkman, J. Tumor angiogenesis: therapeutic implications. N Engl J Med. 1971; 285: 11826.
  • 96
    Toi, M, Kondo, S, Suzuki, H, Yamamoto, Y, Inada, K, Imazawa, T, Taniguchi, T, Tominaga, T. Quantitative analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor in primary breast cancer. Cancer 1996; 77: 11016.
  • 97
    Toi, M, Hoshina, S, Takayanagi, T, Tominaga, T. Association of vascular endothelial growth factor expression with tumor angiogesis and with early relapse in primary breast cancer. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1994; 85: 10459.
  • 98
    Hanahan, D, Folkman, J. Patterns and emerging mechanisms of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis. Cell. 1996; 86: 35364.
  • 99
    Nyberg, P, Xie, L, Kalluri, R. Endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 2005; 65: 396779.
  • 100
    Gerber, HP, Malik, AK, Solar, GP, Sherman, D, Liang, XH, Meng, G, Hong, K, Marsters, JC, Ferrara, N. VEGF regulates haematopoietic stem cell survival by an internal autocrine loop mechanism. Nature. 2002; 417: 9548.
  • 101
    Brusselmans, K, Bono, F, Collen, D, Herbert, JM, Carmeliet, P, de Werchin, M. A novel role for vascular endothelial growth factor as an autocrine survival factor for embryonic stem cells during hypoxia. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280: 34939.
  • 102
    Nor, JE, Christensen, J, Mooney, DJ, Polverini, PJ. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis is associated with enhanced endothelial cell survival and induction of Bcl-2 expression. Am J Pathol. 1999; 154: 37584.
  • 103
    Harmey, JH, Bouchier-Hayes, D. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a survival factor for tumour cells: implications for anti-angiogenic therapy. Bioessays. 2002; 24: 2803.
  • 104
    Pidgeon, GP, Barr, MP, Harmey, JH, Foley, DA, Bouchier-Hayes, DJ. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upregulates BCL-2 and inhibits apoptosis in human and murine mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Br J Cancer. 2001; 85: 2738.
  • 105
    Dias, S, Hattori, K, Heissig, B, Zhu, Z, Wu, Y, Witte, L, Hicklin, DJ, Tateno, M, Bohlen, P, Moore, MA, Rafii, S. Inhibition of both paracrine and autocrine VEGF/ VEGFR-2 signaling pathways is essential to induce longterm remission of xenotransplanted human leukemias, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001; 98: 1085762.
  • 106
    Gorski, DH, Beckett, MA, Jaskowiak, NT, Calvin, DP, Mauceri, HJ, Salloum, RM, Seetharam, S, Koons, A, Hari, DM, Kufe, DW, Weichselbaum, RR. Blockage of the vascular endothelial growth factor stress response increases the antitumor effects of ionizing radiation. Cancer Res. 1999; 59: 33748.
  • 107
    Levy, AP, Levy, NS, Goldberg, MA. Post-transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by hypoxia. J Biol Chem. 1996; 271: 274653.
  • 108
    Scott, PA, Gleadle, JM, Bicknell, R, Harris, AL. Role of the hypoxia sensing system, acidity and reproductive hormones in the variability of vascular endothelial growth factor induction in human breast carcinoma cell lines. Int J Cancer. 1998; 75: 70612.
  • 109
    Riedel, F, Gotte, K, Goessler, U, Sadick, H, Hormann, K. Targeting chemotherapy-induced VEGF up-regulation by VEGF antisense oligonucleotides in HNSCC cell lines, Anticancer Res. 2004; 24: 217983.
  • 110
    Katoh, O, Takahashi, T, Oguri, T, Kuramoto, K, Mihara, K, Kobayashi, M, Hirata, S, Watanabe, H. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits apoptotic death inhematopoietic cells after exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs by inducing MCL1 acting as an antiapoptotic factor. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 55659.
  • 111
    Le Gouill, S, Podar, K, Amiot, M, Hideshima, T, Chauhan, D, Ishitsuka, K, Kumar, S, Raje, N, Richardson, PG, Harousseau, JL, Anderson, KC. VEGF induces Mcl-1 up-regulation and protects multiple myeloma cells against apoptosis. Blood 2004; 104: 288692.
  • 112
    Tran, J, Master, Z, Yu, JL, Rak, J, Dumont, DJ, Kerbel, RS. A role for survivin in chemoresistance of endothelial cells mediated by VEGF. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002; 99: 434954.
  • 113
    Tamm, I, Wang, Y, Sausville, E, Scudiero, DA, Vigna, N, Oltersdorf, T, Reed, JC. IAP-family protein survivin inhibits caspase activity and apoptosis induced by Fas (CD95), Bax, caspases, and anticancer drugs. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 531520.
  • 114
    Giaccia, AJ. Hypoxic stress proteins: survival of the Fit test. Semin Radiat Oncol. 1996; 6: 4658.
  • 115
    Shannon, AM, Bouchier-Hayes, DJ, Condron, CM, Toomey, D. Tumour hypoxia, chemotherapeutic resistance and hypoxia-related therapies. Cancer Treat Rev. 2003; 29: 297307.
  • 116
    Royds, JA, Dower, SK, Qwarnstrom, EE, Lewis, CE. Response of tumour cells to hypoxia: role of p53 and NFKB. Mol Pathol. 1998; 51: 5561.
  • 117
    Comerford, KM, Wallace, TJ, Karhausen, J, Louis, NA, Montalto, MC, Colgan, SP. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1-dependent regulation of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene. Cancer Res. 2002; 62: 338794.
  • 118
    Harrison, L, Blackwell, K. Hypoxia and anemia: factors in decreased sensitivity to radiation therapy and chemotherapy Oncologist 2004; 9: 3140.
  • 119
    Wouters, BG, Weppler, SA, Koritzinsky, M, Landuyt, W, Nuyts, S, Theys, J, Chiu, RK, Lambin, P. Hypoxia as a target for combined modality treatments. Eur J Cancer 2002; 38: 24057.
  • 120
    Vaupel, P. The role of hypoxia-induced factors in tumor progression. Oncologist 2004; 9: 107.
  • 121
    Levy, NS, Chung, S, Furneaux, H, Levy, AP. Hypoxic stabilization of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA by the RNA-binding protein HuR. J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 641723.
  • 122
    Netti, PA, Hamberg, LM, Babich, JW, Kierstead, D, Graham, W, Hunter, GJ, Wolf, GL, Fischman, A, Boucher, Y, Jain, RK. Enhancement of fluid filtration across tumor vessels: Implication for delivery of macro-molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999; 96: 313742.
  • 123
    Bergsland, EK. Update on clinical trials targeting vascular endothelial growth factor in cancer. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004; 61: S1220.
  • 124
    Soker, S, Gollamudi-Payne, S, Fidder, H, Charmahelli, H, Klagsbrun, M. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation by a peptide corresponding to the exon 7-encoded domain of VEGF165. J Biol Chem. 1997; 272: 315828.
  • 125
    Krause, S, Forster, Y, Kraemer, K, Fuessel, S, Kotzsch, M, Schmidt, U, Wirth, MP, Meye, A, Schwenzer, B. Vascular endothelial growth factor antisense pretreatment of bladder cancer cells significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of mitomycin C, gemcitabine and cisplatin. J Urol. 2005; 174: 32831.
  • 126
    Jain, RK. Normalization of tumor vasculature: an emerging concept in antiangiogenic therapy. Science 2005; 307: 5862.
  • 127
    Lee, CG, Heijn, M, di Tomaso, E, Griffon-Etienne, G, Ancukiewicz, M, Koike, C, Park, KR, Ferrara, N, Jain, RK, Suit, HD, Boucher, Y. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment augments tumor radiation response under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Cancer Res. 2000; 60: 556570.
  • 128
    Kabbinavar, FF, Hambleton, J, Mass, RD, Hurwitz, HI, Bergsland, E, Sarkar, S. Combined analysis of efficacy: The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil/leucovorin improves survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 370612.
  • 129
    Kuenen, BC, Rosen, L, Smit, EF, Parson, MR, Levi, M, Ruijter, R, Huisman, H, Kedde, MA, Noordhuis, P, van der Vijgh, WJ, Peters, GJ, Cropp, GF, Scigalla, P, Hoekman, K, Pinedo, HM, Giaccone, G. Dose-finding and pharmacokinetic study of cisplatin, gemcitabine, and SU5416 in patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 165767.
  • 130
    Kerbel, RS, Kamen, BA. The anti-angiogenic basis of metronomic chemotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4: 42336.
  • 131
    Hanahan, D, Bergers, G, Bergsland, E. Less is more, regularly: metronomic dosing of cytotoxic drugs can target tumor angiogenesis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2000; 105: 10457.
  • 132
    Monestiroli, S, Mancuso, P, Burlini, A, Pruneri, G, de Ll'Agnola, C, Gobbi, A, Martinelli, G, Bertolini, F. Kinetics and viability of circulating endothelial cells as surrogate angiogenesis marker in an animal model of human lymphoma. Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 43414.
  • 133
    Bertolini, F, Paul, S, Mancuso, P, Monestiroli, S, Gobbi, A, Shaked, Y, Kerbel, RS. Maximum tolerable dose and low-dose metronomic chemotherapy have opposite effects on the mobilization and viability of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. Cancer Res. 2003; 63: 43426.
  • 134
    Bocci, G, Francia, G, Man, S, Lawler, J, Kerbel, RS. Thrombospondin 1, a mediator of the antiangiogenic effects of low-dose metronomic chemotherapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003; 100: 1291722.
  • 135
    Klement, G, Huang, P, Mayer, B, Green, SK, Man, S, Bohlen, P, Hicklin, D, Kerbel, RS. Differences in therapeutic indexes of combination metronomic chemotherapy and an anti-VEGFR-2 antibody in multidrug-resistant human breast cancer xenografts. Clin Cancer Res. 2002; 8: 22132.