• Open Access

Tissue engineering of blood vessel

Authors

  • Wen Jie Zhang,

    1. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai, China
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  • Wei Liu,

    1. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai, China
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  • Lei Cui,

    1. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai, China
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  • Yilin Cao

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai, China
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  • Guest Editor: R. E. Horch

*Correspondence to: Yilin CAO
Professor and Chief
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,
Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong
University School of Medicine,
639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai 200011, China,
Tel: +86–21-63 13 83 41; Fax: +86–21-53 07 81 28
E-mail: yilincao@yahoo.com

Abstract

  • • Introduction
  • • Components of blood vessel
  • • Principle of vessel engineering
  • • Seeding cells sources
    • - Autologous ECs and SMCs
    • - Embryonic stem cells
    • - Adult stem cells
    • - Other cell types
  • • Biodegradable scaffolds
    • - Nature protein scaffolds
    • - Biodegradable polymer scaffolds
    • - Decellularized vessels
    • - Other materials
  • • Vessel engineering in vitro
    • - Vessel-reactors
    • - Culture additives
  • • Clinical applications
  • • Future perspectives

Abstract

Vascular grafts are in large demand for coronary and peripheral bypass surgeries. Although synthetic grafts have been developed, replacement of vessels with purely synthetic polymeric conduits often leads to the failure of such graft, especially in the grafts less than 6 mm in diameter or in the areas of low blood flow, mainly due to the early formation of thrombosis. Moreover, the commonly used materials lack growth potential, and long-term results have revealed several material-related failures, such as stenosis, thromboembolization, calcium deposition and infection. Tissue engineering has become a promising approach for generating a bio-compatible vessel graft with growth potential. Since the first success of constructing blood vessels with collagen and cultured vascular cells by Weinberg and Bell, there has been considerable progress in the area of vessel engineering. To date, tissue- engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) could be successfully constructed in vitro, and be used to repair the vascular defects in animal models. This review describes the major progress in the field, including the seeding cell sources, the biodegradable scaffolds, the construction technologies, as well as the encouraging achievements in clinical applications. The remaining challenges are also discussed.

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