SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Levine AJ, Momand J, Finlay CA. The p53 tumour suppressor gene. Nature. 1991; 351: 4536.
  • 2
    Harris CC, Hollstein M. Clinical implications of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 131827.
  • 3
    Vogelstein B, Lane D, Levine AJ. Surfing the p53 network. Nature. 2000; 408: 30710.
  • 4
    Jin S, Levine AJ. The p53 functional circuit. J Cell Sci. 2001; 114: 413940.
  • 5
    Toledo F, Wahl GM. MDM2 and MDM4: p53 regulators as targets in anticancer therapy. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007; 39: 147682.
  • 6
    Ozaki T, Nakagawara A. p73, a sophisticated p53 family member in the cancer world. Cancer Sci. 2005; 96: 72937.
  • 7
    Packer BR, Yeager M, Burdett L, Welch R, Beerman M, Qi L, Sicotte H, Staats B, Acharya M, Crenshaw A, Eckert A, Puri V, Gerhard DS, Chanock SJ. SNP500Cancer: a public resource for sequence validation, assay development, and frequency analysis for genetic variation in candidate genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006; 34: D61721.
  • 8
    Felley-Bosco E, Weston A, Cawley HM, Bennett WP, Harris CC. Functional studies of a germ-line polymorphism at codon 47 within the p53 gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1993; 53: 7529.
  • 9
    Li X, Dumont P, Della Pietra A, Shetler C, Murphy ME. The codon 47 polymorphism in p53 is functionally significant. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280: 2424551.
  • 10
    Harris N, Brill E, Shohat O, Prokocimer M, Wolf D, Arai N, Rotter V. Molecular basis for heterogeneity of the human p53 protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1986; 6: 46506.
  • 11
    Matlashewski GJ, Tuck S, Pim D, Lamb P, Schneider J, Crawford LV. Primary structure polymorphism at amino acid residue 72 of human p53. Mol Cell Biol. 1987; 7: 9613.
  • 12
    Baptiste N, Friedlander P, Chen X, Prives C. The proline-rich domain of p53 is required for cooperation with anti-neoplastic agents to promote apoptosis of tumor cells. Oncogene. 2002; 21: 921.
  • 13
    Beckman G, Birgander R, Sjalander A, Saha N, Holmberg PA, Kivela A, Beckman L. Is p53 polymorphism maintained by natural selection? Hum Hered. 1994; 44: 26670.
  • 14
    Bergamaschi D, Samuels Y, Sullivan A, Zvelebil M, Breyssens H, Bisso A, Del Sal G, Syed N, Smith P, Gasco M, Crook T, Lu X. iASPP preferentially binds p53 proline-rich region and modulates apoptotic function of codon 72-polymorphic p53. Nat Genet. 2006; 38: 113341.
  • 15
    Dumont P, Leu JI, Della Pietra AC, 3rd, George DL, Murphy M. The codon 72 polymorphic variants of p53 have markedly different apoptotic potential. Nat Genet. 2003; 33: 35765.
  • 16
    Bergamaschi D, Gasco M, Hiller L, Sullivan A, Syed N, Trigiante G, Yulug I, Merlano M, Numico G, Comino A, Attard M, Reelfs O, Gusterson B, Bell AK, Heath V, Tavassoli M, Farrell PJ, Smith P, Lu X, Crook T. p53 polymorphism influences response in cancer chemotherapy via modulation of p73-dependent apoptosis. Cancer Cell. 2003; 3: 387402.
  • 17
    Marin MC, Jost CA, Brooks LA, Irwin MS, O’Nions J, Tidy JA, James N, McGregor JM, Harwood CA, Yulug IG, Vousden KH, Allday MJ, Gusterson B, Ikawa S, Hinds PW, Crook T, Kaelln WG Jr. A common polymorphism acts as an intragenic modifier of mutant p53 behaviour. Nat Genet. 2000; 25: 4754.
  • 18
    Tada M, Furuuchl K, Kaneda M Matsumoto J, Takahashl M, Hlral A Mltsumoto Y, Iggo RD, Moriuchi T. Inactivate the remaining p53 allele or the alternate p73? Preferential selection of the Arg72 polymorphism in cancers with recessive p53 mutants but not transdomi-nant mutants. Carcinogenesis. 2001; 22: 5157.
  • 19
    Wang Y, Krlngen P, Krlstensen GB, Holm R, Baekelandt MM, Olivier M, Skomedal H, Halnaut P, Trope CG, Abeler VM Nesland JM, Borresen-Dale AL, Helland A. Effect of the codon 72 polymorphism (c.215G>C, p.Arg72Pro) in combination with somatic sequence variants in the TP53 gene on survival in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. Hum Mutat 2004; 24: 2134.
  • 20
    Sullivan A, Syed N, Gasco M Bergamaschl   D  , Trigiante G, Attard M Hlller L, Farrell PJ, Smith P, Lu X, Crook T. Polymorphism in wild-type p53 modulates response to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. Oncogene. 2004; 23: 332837.
  • 21
    Slddlque M, Sabapathy K. Trp53-dependent DNA-repair is affected by the codon 72 polymorphism. Oncogene. 2006; 25: 3489500.
  • 22
    Storey A, Thomas M, Kallta A, Harwood C Gardlol D, Mantovanl F, Breuer J, Leigh IM, Matlashewskl G, Banks L. Role of a p53 polymorphism in the development of human papillomavirus-associated cancer. Nature. 1998; 393: 22934.
  • 23
    Mltra S, Mlsra C, Singh RK, Panda CK Roychoudhury S. Association of specific genotype and haplotype of p53 gene with cervical cancer in India. J Clin Pathol. 2005; 58: 2631.
  • 24
    Santos AM, Sousa H, Catarlno R, Plnto D Perelra D, Vasconcelos A, Matos A Lopes C, Medeiros R. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and risk for cervical cancer in Portugal. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2005; 159: 1437.
  • 25
    Klug SJ, Wilmotte R, Santos C, Almonte M, Herrero R, Guerrero I, Caceres E Pelxoto-Gulmaraes D, Lenolr G, Halnaut P, Walboomers JM, Munoz N. TP53 polymorphism, HPV infection, and risk of cervical cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001; 10: 100912.
  • 26
    Ueda M, Hung YC, Teral Y, Kanda K Takehara M, Yamashlta H, Yamaguchl H, Akise D, Yasuda M, Nishiyama K, Ueki M. Glutathione S-transferase GSTM1, GSTT1 and p53 codon 72 polymorphisms in human tumor cells. Hum Cell. 2003; 16: 24151.
  • 27
    Buyru N, Tigli H, Dalay N. P53 codon 72 polymorphism in breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2003; 10: 7114.
  • 28
    Langerod A, Bukholm IR, Bregard A, Lonning PE, Andersen TI, Rognum TO, Meling GI, Lothe RA, Borresen-Dale AL. The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism may affect the function of TP53 mutations in breast carcinomas but not in colorectal carcinomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002; 11: 16848.
  • 29
    Kalemi TG, Lambropoulos AF, Gueorguiev M, Chrisafi S, Papazisis KT, Kotsis A. The association of p53 mutations and p53 codon 72, Her 2 codon 655 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with breast cancer in Northern Greece. Cancer Lett. 2005; 222: 5765.
  • 30
    Tommiska J, Eerola H, Heinonen M, Salonen L, Kaare M, Tallila J, Ristimaki A, Von Smitten K, Aittomaki K, Heikkila P, Blomqvist C, Nevanlinna H. Breast cancer patients with p53 Pro72 homozygous genotype have a poorer survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11: 5098103.
  • 31
    Khadang B, Fattahi MJ, Talei A, Dehaghani AS, Ghaderi A. Polymorphism of TP53 codon 72 showed no association with breast cancer in Iranian women. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007; 173: 3842.
  • 32
    Soussi T, Wiman KG. Shaping genetic alterations in human cancer: the p53 mutation paradigm. Cancer Cell. 2007; 12: 30312.
  • 33
    Weston A, Pan CF, Ksieski HB, Wallenstein S, Berkowitz GS, Tartter PI, Bleiweiss IJ, Brower ST, Senie RT, Wolff MS. p53 haplotype determination in breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997; 6: 10512.
  • 34
    Liu G, Miller DP, Zhou W, Thurston SW, Fan R, Xu LL, Lynch TJ, Wain JC, Su L, Christiani DC. Differential association of the codon 72 p53 and GSTM1 polymorphisms on histological subtype of non-small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 871822.
  • 35
    Fan R, Wu MT, Miller D, Wain JC, Kelsey KT, Wiencke JK, Christiani DC. The p53 codon 72 polymorphism and lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000; 9: 103742.
  • 36
    Robles AI, Linke SP, Harris CC. The p53 network in lung carcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2002; 21: 6898907.
  • 37
    Jones JS, Chi X, Gu X, Lynch PM, Amos CI, Frazier ML. p53 polymorphism and age of onset of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in a Caucasian population. Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10: 58459.
  • 38
    Shen H, Zheng Y, Sturgis EM, Spitz MR, Wei Q. P53 codon 72 polymorphism and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a case-control study. Cancer Lett. 2002; 183: 12330.
  • 39
    Nelson HH, Wilkojmen M, Marsit CJ, Kelsey KT. TP53 mutation, allelism and survival in non-small cell lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2005; 26: 17703.
  • 40
    Xu Y, Yao L, Ouyang T, Li J, Wang T, Fan Z, Lin B, Lu Y, Xie Y. p53 Codon 72 polymorphism predicts the pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11: 732833.
  • 41
    Lima-Ramos V, Pacheco-Figueiredo L, Costa S, Pardal F, Silva A, Amorim J, Lopes JM, Reis RM. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in susceptibility, overall survival, and adjuvant therapy response of gliomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2008; 180: 149.
  • 42
    Lozano G, Levine AJ. Tissue-specific expression of p53 in transgenic mice is regulated by intron sequences. Mol Carcinog. 1991; 4: 39.
  • 43
    Varley JM, McGown G, Thorncroft M, White GR, Tricker KJ, Kelsey AM, Birch JM, Evans DG. A novel TP53 splicing mutation in a Li-Fraumeni syndrome family: a patient with Wilms’ tumour is not a mutation carrier. Br J Cancer. 1998; 78: 10813.
  • 44
    Lazar V, Hazard F, Bertin F, Janin N, Bellet D, Bressac B. Simple sequence repeat polymorphism within the p53 gene. Oncogene. 1993; 8: 17035.
  • 45
    Hillebrandt S, Streffer C, Demidchik EP, Biko J, Reiners C. Polymorphisms in the p53 gene in thyroid tumours and blood samples of children from areas in Belarus. Mutat Res. 1997; 381: 2017.
  • 46
    McDaniel T, Carbone D, Takahashi T, Chumakov P, Chang EH, Pirollo KF, Yin J, Huang Y, Meltzer SJ. The MspI polymorphism in intron 6 of p53 (TP53) detected by digestion of PCR products. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991; 19: 4796.
  • 47
    Chumakov PM, Jenkins JR. BstNI/NciI polymorphism of the human p53 gene (TP53). Nucleic Acids Res. 1991; 19: 6969.
  • 48
    Runnebaum IB, Tong XW, Konig R, Zhao H, Korner K, Atkinson EN, Kreienberg R, Kieback DG, Hong Z. p53-based blood test for p53PIN3 and risk for sporadic ovarian cancer. Lancet. 1995; 345: 994.
  • 49
    Costa S, Pinto D, Pereira D, Rodrigues H, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Medeiros R, Schmitt F. Importance of TP53 codon 72 and intron 3 duplication 16bp polymorphisms in prediction of susceptibility on breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2008; 8: 32.
  • 50
    Campbell IG, Eccles DM, Dunn B, Davis M, Leake V. p53 polymorphism in ovarian and breast cancer. Lancet. 1996; 347: 3934.
  • 51
    Kim JM, Lee OY, Lee CG, Kwon SJ, Kim KS, Moon W, Koh DH, Lee HL, Yoon BC, Choi HS, Hahm JS, Lee MH, Lee DH. [p53 Codon 72 and 16-bp duplication polymorphisms of gastric cancer in Koreans]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2007; 50: 2928.
  • 52
    Lancaster JM, Brownlee HA, Wiseman RW, Taylor J. p53 polymorphism in ovarian and bladder cancer. Lancet. 1995; 346: 182.
  • 53
    Wang-Gohrke S, Weikel W, Risch H, Vesprini D, Abrahamson J, Lerman C, Godwin A, Moslehi R, Olipade O, Brunet JS, Stickeler E, Kieback DG, Kreienberg R, Weber B, Narod SA, Runnebaum IB. Intron variants of the p53 gene are associated with increased risk for ovarian cancer but not in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations. Br J Cancer. 1999; 81: 17983.
  • 54
    Mavridou D, Gornall R, Campbell IG, Eccles DM. TP53 intron 6 polymorphism and the risk of ovarian and breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1998; 77: 6767.
  • 55
    Peller S, Kopilova Y, Slutzki S, Halevy A, Kvitko K, Rotter V. A novel polymorphism in intron 6 of the human p53 gene: a possible association with cancer predisposition and susceptibility. DNA Cell Biol. 1995; 14: 98390.
  • 56
    Lehman TA, Haffty BG, Carbone CJ, Bishop LR, Gumbs AA, Krishnan S, Shields PG, Modali R, Turner BC. Elevated frequency and functional activity of a specific germ-line p53 intron mutation in familial breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2000; 60: 10629.
  • 57
    Marsh A, Spurdle AB, Turner BC, Fereday S, Thorne H, Pupo GM, Mann GJ, Hopper JL, Sambrook JF, Chenevix-Trench G. The intronic G13964C variant in p53 is not a high-risk mutation in familial breast cancer in Australia. Breast Cancer Res. 2001; 3: 3469.
  • 58
    Fiszer-Maliszewska L, Kazanowska B, Kusnierczyk P, Manczak M, Niepieklo W, Pochron-Zeman B, Nowakowska B. Is p53 intronic variant G13964C associated with predisposition to cancer? J Appl Genet. 2003; 44: 54752.
  • 59
    Wei Q, Cheng L, Amos CI, Wang LE, Guo Z, Hong WK, Spitz MR. Repair of tobacco carcinogen-induced DNA adducts and lung cancer risk: a molecular epidemiologic study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000; 92: 176472.
  • 60
    Wu X, Zhao H, Amos CI, Shete S, Makan N, Hong WK, Kadlubar FF, Spitz MR. p53 Genotypes and Haplotypes Associated With Lung Cancer Susceptibility and Ethnicity. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 68190.
  • 61
    Birgander R, Sjalander A, Rannug A, Alexandrie AK, Sundberg MI, Seidegard J, Tornling G, Beckman G, Beckman L. P53 polymorphisms and haplotypes in lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 1995; 16: 22336.
  • 62
    Khaliq S, Hameed A, Khaliq T, Ayub Q, Qamar R, Mohyuddin A, Mazhar K, Qasim-Mehdi S. P53 mutations, polymorphisms, and haplotypes in Pakistani ethnic groups and breast cancer patients. Genet Test. 2000; 4: 239.
  • 63
    Sjalander A, Birgander R, Athlin L, Stenling R, Rutegard J, Beckman L, Beckman G. P53 germ line haplotypes associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 1995; 16: 14614.
  • 64
    Sjalander A, Birgander R, Hallmans G, Cajander S, Lenner P, Athlin L, Beckman G, Beckman L. p53 polymorphisms and haplotypes in breast cancer. Carcinogenesis. 1996; 17: 13136.
  • 65
    Biros E, Kalina I, Kohut A, Bogyiova E, Salagovic J, Sulla I. Allelic and haplotype frequencies of the p53 polymorphisms in brain tumor patients. Physiol Res. 2002; 51: 5964.
  • 66
    Birgander R, Sjalander A, Zhou Z, Fan C, Beckman L, Beckman G. p53 polymorphisms and haplotypes in nasopharyngeal cancer. Hum Hered. 1996; 46: 4954.
  • 67
    Boldrini L, Gisfredi S, Ursino S, Lucchi M, Greco G, Mussi A, Donati V, Fontanini G. Effect of the p53 codon 72 and intron 3 polymorphisms on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis. Cancer Invest. 2008; 26: 16872.
  • 68
    Lamolle G, Marin M, Alvarez-Valin F. Silent mutations in the gene encoding the p53 protein are preferentially located in conserved amino acid positions and splicing enhancers. Mutat Res. 2006; 600: 10212.
  • 69
    Kimchi-Sarfaty C, Oh JM, Kim IW, Sauna ZE, Calcagno AM, Ambudkar SV, Gottesman MM. A “silent” polymorphism in the MDR1 gene changes substrate specificity. Science. 2007; 315: 5258.
  • 70
    Kanaya S, Yamada Y, Kinouchi M, Kudo Y, Ikemura T. Codon usage and tRNA genes in eukaryotes: correlation of codon usage diversity with translation efficiency and with CG-dinucleotide usage as assessed by multivariate analysis. J Mol Evol. 2001; 53: 2908.
  • 71
    Sharp PM, Li WH. Codon usage in regulatory genes in Escherichia coli does not reflect selection for ‘rare’ codons. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986; 14: 773749.
  • 72
    Venables JP. Aberrant and alternative splicing in cancer. Cancer Res. 2004; 64: 764754.
  • 73
    Holmila R, Fouquet C, Cadranel J, Zalcman G, Soussi T. Splice mutations in the p53 gene: case report and review of the literature. Hum Mutat. 2003; 21: 1012.
  • 74
    Warneford SG, Witton LJ, Townsend ML, Rowe PB, Reddel RR, Dalla-Pozza L, Symonds G. Germ-line splicing mutation of the p53 gene in a cancer-prone family. Cell Growth Differ. 1992; 3: 83946.
  • 75
    Gorlov IP, Gorlova OY, Frazier ML, Amos CI. Missense mutations in cancer suppressor gene TP53 are colocalized with exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs). Mutat Res. 2004; 554: 17583.
  • 76
    Cartegni L, Chew SL, Krainer AR. Listening to silence and understanding nonsense: exonic mutations that affect splicing. Nat Rev Genet. 2002; 3: 28598.
  • 77
    Cartegni L, Wang J, Zhu Z, Zhang MQ, Krainer AR. ESEfinder: A web resource to identify exonic splicing enhancers. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003; 31: 356871.
  • 78
    Pfeifer GP. p53 mutational spectra and the role of methylated CpG sequences. Mutat Res. 2000; 450: 15566.
  • 79
    Kouidou S, Malousi A, Maglaveras N. Methylation and repeats in silent and nonsense mutations of p53. Mutat Res. 2006; 599: 16777.
  • 80
    Felix CA, Brown DL, Mitsudomi T, Ikagaki N, Wong A, Wasserman R, Womer RB, Biegel JA. Polymorphism at codon 36 of the p53 gene. Oncogene. 1994; 9: 3278.
  • 81
    Finlan LE, Hupp TR. p63: the phantom of the tumor suppressor. Cell Cycle. 2007; 6: 106271.
  • 82
    Barrow LL, Van Bokhoven H, Daack-Hirsch S, Andersen T, Van Beersum SE, Gorlin R, Murray JC. Analysis of the p63 gene in classical EEC syndrome, related syndromes, and non-syndromic orofacial clefts. J Med Genet. 2002; 39: 55966.
  • 83
    Muller M, Schleithoff ES, Stremmel W, Melino G, Krammer PH, Schilling T. One, two, three–p53, p63, p73 and chemosensitivity. Drug Resist Updat. 2006; 9: 288306.
  • 84
    Casciano I, Mazzocco K, Boni L, Pagnan G, Banelli B, Allemanni G, Ponzoni M, Tonini GP, Romani M. Expression of DeltaNp73 is a molecular marker for adverse outcome in neuroblastoma patients. Cell Death Differ. 2002; 9: 24651.
  • 85
    Zaika AI, Slade N, Erster SH, Sansome C, Joseph TW, Pearl M, Chalas E, Moll UM. DeltaNp73, a dominant-negative inhibitor of wild-type p53 and TAp73, is up-regulated in human tumors. J Exp Med. 2002; 196: 76580.
  • 86
    Moll UM, Slade N. p63 and p73: roles in development and tumor formation. Mol Cancer Res. 2004; 2: 37186.
  • 87
    Coates PJ. Regulating p73 isoforms in human tumours. J Pathol. 2006; 210: 3859.
  • 88
    Kaghad M, Bonnet H, Yang A, Creancier L, Biscan JC, Valent A, Minty A, Chalon P, Lelias JM, Dumont X, Ferrara P, McKeon F, Caput D. Monoallelically expressed gene related to p53 at 1p36, a region frequently deleted in neuroblastoma and other human cancers. Cell. 1997; 90: 80919.
  • 89
    Li G, Sturgis EM, Wang LE, Chamberlain RM, Amos CI, Spitz MR, El-Naggar AK, Hong WK, Wei Q. Association of a p73 exon 2 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism with risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Carcinogenesis. 2004; 25: 19116.
  • 90
    Li G, Wang LE, Chamberlain RM, Amos CI, Spitz MR, Wei Q. p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer. Cancer Res. 2004; 64: 68636.
  • 91
    Niwa Y, Hirose K, Matsuo K, Tajima K, Ikoma Y, Nakanishi T, Nawa A, Kuzuya K, Tamakoshi A, Hamajima N. Association of p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism at exon 2 and p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism with the risk of endometrial cancer in Japanese subjects. Cancer Lett. 2005; 219: 18390.
  • 92
    Ryan BM, McManus R, Daly JS, Carton E, Keeling PW, Reynolds JV, Kelleher D. A common p73 polymorphism is associated with a reduced incidence of oesophageal carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2001; 85: 1499503.
  • 93
    Hu Z, Miao X, Ma H, Tan W, Wang X, Lu D, Wei Q, Lin D, Shen H. Dinucleotide polymorphism of p73 gene is associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Int J Cancer. 2005; 114: 45560.
  • 94
    Li H, Yao L, Ouyang T, Li J, Wang T, Fan Z, Fan T, Dong B, Lin B, Xie Y. Association of p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 (GC/AT) polymorphism with breast cancer survival. Carcinogenesis. 2007; 28: 3727.
  • 95
    Pena C, Garcia JM, Dominguez G, Silva J, Garcia V, Carcereny E, Vargas J, Provencio M, Espana P, Bonilla F. Intronic deletion affecting a negative regulatory region of TP73 is related to breast and colorectal carcinomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004; 39: 25762.
  • 96
    Dominguez G, Pena C, Silva J, Garcia JM, Garcia V, Rodriguez R, Cantos B, Citores MJ, Espana P, Bonilla F. The presence of an intronic deletion in p73 and high levels of ZEB1 alter the TAp73/DeltaTAp73 ratio in colorectal carcinomas. J Pathol. 2006; 210: 3907.
  • 97
    Toledo F, Wahl GM. Regulating the p53 pathway: in vitrohypotheses, in vivo veritas. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006; 6: 90923.
  • 98
    Bond GL, Hu W, Levine A. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 gene: from a molecular and cellular explanation to clinical effect. Cancer Res. 2005; 65: 54814.
  • 99
    Bougeard G, Baert-Desurmont S, Tournier I, Vasseur S, Martin C, Brugieres L, Chompret A, Bressac-de Paillerets B, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Bonaiti-Pellie C, Frebourg T. Impact of the MDM2 SNP309 and p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism on age of tumour onset in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. J Med Genet. 2006; 43: 5313.
  • 100
    Menin C, Scaini MC, De Salvo GL, Biscuola M, Quaggio M, Esposito G, Belluco C, Montagna M, Agata S, D’Andrea E, Nitti D, Amadori A, Bertorelle R. Association between MDM2-SNP309 and age at colorectal cancer diagnosis according to p53 mutation status. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98: 2858.
  • 101
    Ruijs MW, Schmidt MK, Nevanlinna H, Tommiska J, Aittomaki K, Pruntel R, Verhoef S, Van't Veer LJ. The single-nucleotide polymorphism 309 in the MDM2 gene contributes to the Li-Fraumeni syndrome and related phenotypes. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007; 15: 1104.
  • 102
    Boersma BJ, Howe TM, Goodman JE, Yfantis HG, Lee DH, Chanock SJ, Ambs S. Association of breast cancer outcome with status of p53 and MDM2 SNP309. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98: 9119.
  • 103
    Schmidt MK, Reincke S, Broeks A, Braaf LM, Hogervorst FB, Tollenaar RA, Johnson N, Fletcher O, Peto J, Tommiska J, Blomqvist C, Nevanlinna HA, Healey CS, Dunning AM, Pharoah PD, Easton DF, Dork T, Van't Veer LJ. Do MDM2 SNP309 and TP53 R72P interact in breast cancer susceptibility? A large pooled series from the breast cancer association consortium. Cancer Res. 2007; 67: 958490.
  • 104
    Bond GL, Hirshfield KM, Kirchhoff T, Alexe G, Bond EE, Robins H, Bartel F, Taubert H, Wuerl P, Hait W, Toppmeyer D, Offit K, Levine AJ. MDM2 SNP309 accelerates tumor formation in a gender-specific and hormone-dependent manner. Cancer Res. 2006; 66: 510410.
  • 105
    Bond GL, Levine AJ. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the p53 pathway interacts with gender, environmental stresses and tumor genetics to influence cancer in humans. Oncogene. 2007; 26: 131723.
  • 106
    Bond GL, Hu W, Bond EE, Robins H, Lutzker SG, Arva NC, Bargonetti J, Bartel F, Taubert H, Wuerl P, Onel K, Yip L, Hwang SJ, Strong LC, Lozano G, Levine AJ. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter attenuates the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and accelerates tumor formation in humans. Cell. 2004; 119: 591602.
  • 107
    Krekac D, Brozkova K, Knoflickova D, Hrstka R, Muller P, Nenutil R, Vojtesek B. MDM2SNP309 does not associate with elevated MDM2 protein expression or breast cancer risk. Oncology. 2008; 74: 847.
  • 108
    Hartmann E, Fernandez V, Stoecklein H, Hernandez L, Campo E, Rosenwald A. Increased MDM2 expression is associated with inferior survival in mantle-cell lymphoma, but not related to the MDM2 SNP309. Haematologica. 2007; 92: 5745.
  • 109
    O’Connor PM. Mammalian G1 and G2 phase checkpoints. Cancer Sur v. 1997; 29: 15182.
  • 110
    Mousses S, Ozcelik H, Lee PD, Malkin D, Bull SB, Andrulis IL. Two variants of the CIP1/WAF1 gene occur together and are associated with human cancer. Hum Mol Genet. 1995; 4: 108992.
  • 111
    Birgander R, Sjalander A, Saha N, Spitsyn V, Beckman L, Beckman G. The codon 31 polymorphism of the p53-inducible gene p21 shows distinct differences between major ethnic groups. Hum Hered. 1996; 46: 14854.
  • 112
    Su L, Sai Y, Fan R, Thurston SW, Miller DP, Zhou W, Wain JC, Lynch TJ, Liu G, Christiani DC. P53 (codon 72) and P21 (codon 31) polymorphisms alter in vivo mRNA expression of p21. Lung Cancer. 2003; 40: 25966.
  • 113
    Pietsch EC, Humbey O, Murphy ME. Polymorphisms in the p53 pathway. Oncogene. 2006; 25: 160211.
  • 114
    Shih CM, Lin PT, Wang HC, Huang WC, Wang YC. Lack of evidence of association of p21WAF1/CIP1 polymorphism with lung cancer susceptibility and prognosis in Taiwan. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2000; 91: 915.
  • 115
    Powell BL, Van Staveren IL, Roosken P, Grieu F, Berns EM, Iacopetta B. Associations between common polymorphisms in TP53 and p21WAF1/Cip1 and phenotypic features of breast cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2002; 23: 3115.
  • 116
    Facher EA, Becich MJ, Deka A, Law JC. Association between human cancer and two polymorphisms occurring together in the p21Waf1/Cip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene. Cancer. 1997; 79: 24249.
  • 117
    Contente A, Dittmer A, Koch MC, Roth J, Dobbelstein M. A polymorphic microsatellite that mediates induction of PIG3 by p53. Nat Genet. 2002; 30: 31520.
  • 118
    Fegan C, Starczynski J, Pratt G, Pepper C. The role of the bax gene polymorphism G(-248)A in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 2006; 20: 14601.
  • 119
    Saxena A, Moshynska O, Sankaran K, Viswanathan S, Sheridan DP. Association of a novel single nucleotide polymorphism, G(-248)A, in the 5’-UTR of BAX gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with disease progression and treatment resistance. Cancer Lett. 2002; 187: 199205.
  • 120
    Kidd LR, Coulibaly A, Templeton TM, Chen W, Long LO, Mason T, Bonilla C, Akereyeni F, Freeman V, Isaacs W, Ahaghotu C, Kittles RA. Germline BCL-2 sequence variants and inherited predisposition to prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006; 9: 28492.
  • 121
    Crew KD, Gammon MD, Terry MB, Zhang FF, Agrawal M, Eng SM, Sagiv SK, Teitelbaum SL, Neugut AI, Santella RM. Genetic polymorphisms in the apoptosis-associated genes FAS and FASL and breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2007; 28: 254851.
  • 122
    Ueda M, Hung YC, Terai Y, Yamaguchi H, Saito J, Nunobiki O, Noda S, Ueki M. Fas gene promoter -670 polymorphism (A/G) is associated with cervical carcinogenesis. Gynecol Oncol. 2005; 98: 12933.
  • 123
    Zhang X, Miao X, Sun T, Tan W, Qu S, Xiong P, Zhou Y, Lin D. Functional polymorphisms in cell death pathway genes FAS and FASL contribute to risk of lung cancer. J Med Genet. 2005; 42: 47984.
  • 124
    Tomso DJ, Inga A, Menendez D, Pittman GS, Campbell MR, Storici F, Bell DA, Resnick MA. Functionally distinct polymorphic sequences in the human genome that are targets for p53 transactivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005; 102: 64316.
  • 125
    Resnick MA, Tomso D, Inga A, Menendez D, Bell D. Functional diversity in the gene network controlled by the master regulator p53 in humans. Cell Cycle. 2005; 4: 10269.
  • 126
    Menendez D, Krysiak O, Inga A, Krysiak B, Resnick MA, Schonfelder G. A SNP in the flt-1 promoter integrates the VEGF system into the p53 transcriptional network. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006; 103: 140611.
  • 127
    Menendez D, Inga A, Snipe J, Krysiak O, Schonfelder G, Resnick MA. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in a half-binding site creates p53 and estrogen receptor control of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2007; 27: 2590600.
  • 128
    Vikhanskaya F, Siddique MM, Kei Lee M, Broggini M, Sabapathy K. Evaluation of the combined effect of p53 codon 72 polymorphism and hotspot mutations in response to anticancer drugs. Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11: 434856.
  • 129
    Noma C, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S. Association of p53 genetic polymorphism (Arg72Pro) with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer risk in Japanese women. Cancer Lett. 2004; 210: 197203.
  • 130
    Sakiyama T, Kohno T, Mimaki S, Ohta T, Yanagitani N, Sobue T, Kunitoh H, Saito R, Shimizu K, Hirama C, Kimura J, Maeno G, Hirose H, Eguchi T, Saito D, Ohki M, Yokota J. Association of amino acid substitution polymorphisms in DNA repair genes TP53, POLI, REV1 and LIG4 with lung cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2005; 114: 7307.
  • 131
    Parhar P, Ezer R, Shao Y, Allen JC, Miller DC, Newcomb EW. Possible association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005; 137: 98103.