• Open Access

The immune boundaries for stem cell based therapies: problems and prospective solutions

Authors

  • Hmadcha Abdelkrim,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER), Sevilla, Spain
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  • Domínguez-Bendala Juan,

    1. Pancreatic Development & Stem Cell Laboratory, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
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  • Wakeman Jane,

    1. North West Cancer Research Fund Institute, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales Bangor, Memorial Building, Gwynedd, UK
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  • Arredouani Mohamed,

    1. Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
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  • Soria Bernat

    1. Department of Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER), Sevilla, Spain
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  • Translational therapies and new approaches for the treatment of immune-based disorders Review Series.

Correspondence to: Abdelkrim HMADCHA, Department of Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine, (CABIMER), Avenida Americo Vespucio s/n, Parque Cientifico y Tecnológico Cartuja 93, 41092–Sevilla, Spain.
Tel.: +34–954 468 373
Fax: +34–954 461 664
E-mail: karim.hmadcha@cabimer.es

Abstract

  • • Introduction
  • • Classification and sources of stem cells
    • - Embryonic stem
    • - Adult stem cells
    • - Mesenchymal stem cells
    • - Bone marrow and cord blood stem cells
    • - Amniotic fluid stem cells
  • • Limitations of stem cells
  • • Alternatives to overcome the limitations of stem cells
  • • Histocompatibility and immune rejection
  • • Are ESCs immunogenic or immunoprivileged?
  • • Overcoming the need for immune manipulation to avoid rejection
  • • Manipulating immune tolerance for stem cell-based therapies
  • • Conclusions

Stem cells have fascinated the scientific and clinical communities for over a century. Despite the controversy that surrounds this field, it is clear that stem cells have the potential to revolutionize medicine. However, a number of significant hurdles still stand in the way of the realization of this potential. Chiefly among these are safety concerns, differentiation efficiency and overcoming immune rejection. Here we review current progress made in this field to optimize the safe use of stem cells with particular emphasis on prospective interventions to deal with challenges generated by immune rejection.

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