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Keywords:

  • multiple sclerosis;
  • quantitative proteomic;
  • 2D-DIGE;
  • UPLC/Q-TOF;
  • ELISA

Abstract

The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenging for the lack of a specific diagnostic test. Recent researches in quantitative proteomics, however, offer new opportunities for biomarker discovery and the study of disease pathogenesis. To find more potential protein biomarkers, we used two technologies, 2-dimensional fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromato-graph coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS), to quantitatively analyse differential proteomic expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between patients with MS (the experiment group) and patients with other neurological diseases (ONDs; the control group). Analysis by the former technology identified more than 43 different protein spots (39 proteins), of which 17 spots (13 proteins) showed more than 1.5-fold difference in abundance as analysed by DeCyder software (GE Healthcare, Piscataway. NJ, USA) between the MS and the ONDs groups. The expression of five protein spots was elevated and the expression of 12 protein spots was decreased in the MS group. Meanwhile, the latter method, UPLC/Q-TOF MS showed 68 different proteins. There were 45 proteins with a difference of more than 1.5 folds between the two groups, in which the expression of 20 proteins was elevated and the expression of 25 proteins was decreased in the MS group. Data provided by the two methods indicated that the proteins overlapped ratio was 27% in the 26 significant proteins that had the same regulation tendency. The differential CSF proteins were analysed further by biological network and it revealed interaction of them. The subsequent ELISA measuring the concentration of cystatin C (P < 0.01), which was one of the proteins discovered simultaneously with the two technologies, confirmed the results of the two quantitative proteomic analysis. The combination of the two quantitative proteomic technologies was helpful in discovering differentially expressed proteins that may have a connection with MS disease physiology and serve as useful biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of MS diseases.