• Open Access

Sensing, physiological effects and molecular response to elevated CO2 levels in eukaryotes

Authors

  • Kfir Sharabi,

    1. Department of Genetics, Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
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      All authors contributed equally to this study.

  • Emilia Lecuona,

    1. Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
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      All authors contributed equally to this study.

  • Iiro Taneli Helenius,

    1. Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
    2. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
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      All authors contributed equally to this study.

  • Greg J. Beitel,

    1. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
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      All authors contributed equally to this study.

  • Jacob Iasha Sznajder,

    1. Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
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      All authors contributed equally to this study.

  • Yosef Gruenbaum

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Genetics, Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
      *Correspondence to: Yosef GRUENBAUM,
      Department of Genetics, The Institute of Life Sciences,
      The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
      Jerusalem 91904, Israel.
      Tel.: 972-2-6585995
      Fax: 972-2-6586975
      E-mail: gru@vms.huji.ac.il
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      All authors contributed equally to this study.


*Correspondence to: Yosef GRUENBAUM,
Department of Genetics, The Institute of Life Sciences,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
Jerusalem 91904, Israel.
Tel.: 972-2-6585995
Fax: 972-2-6586975
E-mail: gru@vms.huji.ac.il

Abstract

  • • CO2 transport into cells
  • • CO2 sensing in cells and organisms
    • – CO2 sensing in mammalian neuronal cells
      • – CO2 sensing in peripheral chemoreceptors
      • – CO2 sensing in Central chemoreceptors
    • – CO2 sensing by non-neuronal mammalian cells
    • – CO2 sensing in Drosophila and other insects
      • – Neuronal-mediated CO2 sensing
      • – Non-neuronal CO2 sensing
    • – CO2 sensing in C. elegans
    • – CO2 sensing in fungi
  • • Physiological effects of elevated CO2
    • – Physiological effects on mammalian tissues
    • – Pathophysiological effects of elevated levels of CO2
    • – Physiological effects on D. melanogaster
    • – Physiological effects on C. elegans
  • • Molecular response to elevated CO2 levels
    • – Molecular responses in mammalian neuronal cells
    • – Molecular responses to elevated levels of CO2 in mammalian non-neuronal cells
      • – Lung cells
      • – Kidney cells
    • – Molecular responses in D. melanogaster
      • – Olfactory responses
      • – Gustatory responses
      • – Non-neuronal responses
    • – Molecular responses in C. elegans

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important gaseous molecule that maintains biosphere homeostasis and is an important cellular signalling molecule in all organisms. The transport of CO2 through membranes has fundamental roles in most basic aspects of life in both plants and animals. There is a growing interest in understanding how CO2 is transported into cells, how it is sensed by neurons and other cell types and in understanding the physiological and molecular consequences of elevated CO2 levels (hypercapnia) at the cell and organism levels. Human pulmonary diseases and model organisms such as fungi, C. elegans, Drosophila and mice have been proven to be important in understanding of the mechanisms of CO2 sensing and response.

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