• stroke;
  • neuroprotection;
  • ischemic penumbra


With the growing understanding of the mechanism of cell death in ischemia, new approaches for treatment such as neuroprotection have emerged. The basic aim of this strategy is to interfere with the events of the ischemic cascade, blocking the pathological processes and preventing the death of nerve cells in the ischemic penumebra. This concept involves inhibition of the pathological molecular events which eventually leads to the influx of calcium, activation of free radicals and neuronal death. Despite encouraging data from experimental animal models, all clinical trials of neuroprotective therapies have to date been unsuccessful. This article reviews some of the reasons for the failure of neuroprotection in the clinical trials so far. Despite all the negative reports, we believe it would be wrong to give up at this point, since there is still reasonable hope of finding an effective neuroprotection for stroke.