Recently the new term ‘telocytes’ has been proposed for cells formerly known as interstitial Cajal-like cells. In fact, telocytes are not really Cajal-like cells, they being different from all other interstitial cells by the presence of telopodes, which are cell-body prolongations, very thin, extremely long with a moniliform aspect. The identification of these cells is based on ultrastructural criteria. The presence of telocytes in others organs was previously documented. We reported for the first time, an ultrastructural study of telocytes in the lamina propria of rat duodenum. Our findings show that typical telocytes are present in the rat duodenum. Telocytes are located in the lamina propria, immediately below mucosal crypts. Telopodes frequently establish close spatial relationships with immune cells, blood vessels and nerve endings. On the basis of their distribution and morphology, we suggest that these cells may be involved in immune response and in our opinion, it may be possible that different locations of telocytes could be associated with different roles.