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Keywords:

  • tumour necrosis factor-α;
  • ventricular remodelling;
  • NADPH oxidase;
  • Nox2;
  • Nox4

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines are crucial in ventricular remodelling, such as inflammation-associated myocarditis. We previously reported that tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced ROS in human aortic smooth muscle cells is mediated by NADPH oxidase subunit Nox4. In this study, we investigated whether TNF-α-induced ventricular remodelling was mediated by Nox2 and/or Nox4. An intravenous injection of murine TNF-α was administered to a group of mice and saline injection was administered to controls. Echocardiography was performed on days 1, 7 and 28 post-injection. Ventricular tissue was used to determine gene and protein expression of Nox2, Nox4, ANP, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and to measure ROS. Nox2 and Nox4 siRNA were used to determine whether or not Nox2 and Nox4 mediated TNF-α-induced ROS and upregulation of IL-1β and IL-6 in adult human cardiomyocytes. Echocardiography showed a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic and left ventricular end-systolic diameters, and a significant decrease in the ejection fraction and fractional shortening in mice 7 and 28 days after TNF-α injection. These two groups of mice showed a significant increase in ventricular ROS, ANP, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α proteins. Nox2 and Nox4 mRNA and protein levels were also sequentially increased. ROS was significantly decreased by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, but not by inhibitors of other ROS production systems. Nox2 and Nox4 siRNA significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced ROS and upregulation of IL-1β and IL-6 in cardiomyocytes. Our study highlights a novel TNF-α-induced chronic ventricular remodelling mechanism mediated by sequential regulation of Nox2 and Nox4 subunits.