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Keywords:

  • apolipoprotein;
  • Apos;
  • autism;
  • biomarker;
  • cholesterol;
  • proteomics

Abstract

● Introduction
● Methods for proteomic analysis
  – Sample fractionation/biochemical fractionation
  – MS
● The cholesterol system
  – Cholesterol and apolipoproteins
  – Cholesterol
  – Apos
  – ApoE
  – ApoB
  – ApoA1 and ApoA4
● The cholesterol system and specific disorders
  – Alzheimer's disease
  – Schizophrenia
  – Depression
  – Developmental disorders: ASDs
● Discussion
  – Proteomic considerations for analysis of Apos
  – Considering diet and lifestyle effects on the cholesterol system
  – Consequences of disturbed cholesterol and Apos in the CNS
● Conclusion

Measuring biomarkers to identify and assess illness is a strategy growing in popularity and relevance. Although already in clinical use for treating and predicting cancer, no biological measurement is used clinically for any psychiatric disorder. Biomarkers could predict the course of a medical problem, and aid in determining how and when to treat. Several studies have indicated that of candidate psychiatric biomarkers detected using proteomic techniques, cholesterol and associated proteins, specifically apolipoproteins (Apos), may be of interest. Cholesterol is necessary for brain development and its synthesis continues at a lower rate in the adult brain. Apos are the protein component of lipoproteins responsible for lipid transport. There is extensive evidence that the levels of cholesterol and Apos may be disturbed in psychiatric disorders, including autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Here, we describe putative serum biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, and the role of cholesterol and Apos in central nervous system (CNS) disorders.