• Open Access

Trophic factors and cell therapy to stimulate brain repair after ischaemic stroke

Authors

  • María Gutiérrez-Fernández,

    1. Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, La Paz University Hospital, Neuroscience Area of IdiPAZ (Health Research Institute), Autónoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • Blanca Fuentes,

    1. Neuroscience and Cerebrovascular Research Laboratory, La Paz University Hospital, Neuroscience Area of IdiPAZ (Health Research Institute), Autónoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • Berta Rodríguez-Frutos,

    1. Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, La Paz University Hospital, Neuroscience Area of IdiPAZ (Health Research Institute), Autónoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • Jaime Ramos-Cejudo,

    1. Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, La Paz University Hospital, Neuroscience Area of IdiPAZ (Health Research Institute), Autónoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • María Teresa Vallejo-Cremades,

    1. Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, La Paz University Hospital, Neuroscience Area of IdiPAZ (Health Research Institute), Autónoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • Exuperio Díez-Tejedor

    Corresponding author
    1. Neuroscience and Cerebrovascular Research Laboratory, La Paz University Hospital, Neuroscience Area of IdiPAZ (Health Research Institute), Autónoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, La Paz University Hospital, Neuroscience Area of IdiPAZ (Health Research Institute), Autónoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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Correspondence to: Prof. Exuperio DÍEZ-TEJEDOR,

Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, “La Paz” University Hospital, IdiPAZ Health Research Institute, Autónoma University of Madrid, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid, Spain.

Tel.: +34 917277066

Fax: +34 913581403

E-mail: ediezt@meditex.es; ediez.hulp@salud.madrid.org

Abstract

Brain repair involves a compendium of natural mechanisms that are activated following stroke. From a therapeutic viewpoint, reparative therapies that encourage cerebral plasticity are needed. In the last years, it has been demonstrated that modulatory treatments for brain repair such as trophic factor- and stem cell-based therapies can promote neurogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis, all of which having a beneficial impact on infarct volume, cell death and, finally, and most importantly, on the functional recovery. However, even when promising results have been obtained in a wide range of experimental animal models and conditions these preliminary results have not yet demonstrated their clinical efficacy. Here, we focus on brain repair modulatory treatments for ischaemic stroke, that use trophic factors, drugs with trophic effects and stem cell therapy. Important and still unanswered questions for translational research ranging from experimental animal models to recent and ongoing clinical trials are reviewed here.

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