Hyperglycaemia during acute myocardial infarction is common and associated with increased mortality. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) is a modulator of cellular redox state and contributes to cell apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate whether or not hyperglycaemia enhances Txnip expression in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (MI/R) and consequently exacerbates MI/R injury. Rats were subjected to 30 min. of left coronary artery ligation followed by 4 hrs of reperfusion and treated with saline or high glucose (HG, 500 g/l, 4 ml/kg/h intravenously). In vitro study was performed on cultured rat cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischaemia/reperfusion (SI/R) and incubated with HG (25 mM) or normal glucose (5.6 mM) medium. In vivo HG infusion during MI/R significantly impaired cardiac function, aggravated myocardial injury and increased cardiac oxidative stress. Meanwhile, Txnip expression was enhanced whereas thioredoxin activity was inhibited following HG treatment in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) hearts. In addition, HG activated p38 MAPK and inhibited Akt in I/R hearts. In cultured cardiomyocytes subjected to SI/R, HG incubation stimulated Txnip expression and reduced thioredoxin activity. Overexpression of Txnip enhanced HG-induced superoxide generation and aggravated cardiomyocyte apoptosis, whereas Txnip RNAi significantly blunted the deleterious effects of HG. Moreover, inhibition of p38 MAPK or activation of Akt markedly blocked HG-induced Txnip expression in I/R cardiomyocytes. Most importantly, intramyocardial injection of Txnip siRNA markedly decreased Txnip expression and alleviated MI/R injury in HG-treated rats. Hyperglycaemia enhances myocardial Txnip expression, possibly through reciprocally modulating p38 MAPK and Akt activation, leading to aggravated oxidative stress and subsequently, amplification of cardiac injury following MI/R.