The authors determined CSF and serum IgG and IgM antibodies to seven gangliosides in 48 patients with multiple sclerosis. Differing ganglioside antibody patterns in CSF but not serum allowed to reclassify 93% of MS patients correctly when compared to patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome or neuroborreliosis. This suggest that the antibody patterns are neither random nor alike in inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. CSF ganglioside antibody titres were found to be different for patients with relapsing remitting (RRMS; n = 35) and chronic progressive (CPMS; n = 13) multiple sclerosis. Our study reveals characteristic ganglioside antibody patterns in MS and confirms previous evidence of disturbed immunoregulation in MS.