• bladder dysfunction;
  • desmopressin;
  • multiple sclerosis;
  • urinary frequency

Objectives –  The current review evaluates the safety and efficacy of desmopressin in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who suffer from both daytime and nocturnal voiding frequency and from incontinence.

Materials and methods –  A literature search was carried out looking for studies published between 1990 and 2003 which evaluated desmopressin in MS patients with bladder dysfunction.

Results –  The grand total mean effect sizes show the following estimates of clinical relevant differences: desmopressin has a moderate effect on the number of voids during the day or during the night over a period of 6 h after taking the drug. A large effect associated with the use of desmopressin was detected by the mean difference in urine volume (ml) in 6 h. A small effect was detected in the mean 24-h urine volume. Serum sodium levels were combined with plasma osmolality in some studies and were found to be not significantly affected by desmopressin treatment.