Active and passive smoking and risk of Parkinson’s disease


Yoshihiro Miyake, MD, PhD, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
Tel.: +81 92 801 1011 (ext. 3311)
Fax: +81 92 863 8892


Tanaka K, Miyake Y, Fukushima W, Sasaki S, Kiyohara C, Tsuboi Y, Yamada T, Oeda T, Miki T, Kawamura N, Sakae N, Fukuyama H, Hirota Y, Nagai M, the Fukuoka Kinki Parkinson’s disease Study Group. Active and passive smoking and risk of Parkinson’s disease.
Acta Neurol Scand: 2010: 122: 377–382.
© 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Munksgaard.

Objective –  To assess the association between active and passive smoking and the risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD), a case–control study with 249 PD patients and 369 controls was carried out in Japan.

Methods –  Information on smoking was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age, sex, region of residence, educational level, and occupational exposure.

Results –  Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD [adjusted odds ratio = 0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24–0.59]. Risk for former smokers was intermediate between the high risk for never smokers and the low risk for current smokers. Adjusted odds ratios for former and current smokers were 0.51 (95% CI: 0.32–0.82) and 0.12 (95% CI: 0.05–0.26), respectively. There was an inverse dose-response gradient with pack-years smoked. No significant association was detected for passive smoking exposure.

Conclusion –  Our results appear to confirm data from previous epidemiological studies.