Vitamin D status in patients with MS is negatively correlated with depression, but not with fatigue
Version of Record online: 29 SEP 2010
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Volume 124, Issue 3, pages 171–175, September 2011
How to Cite
Knippenberg, S., Bol, Y., Damoiseaux, J., Hupperts, R. and Smolders, J. (2011), Vitamin D status in patients with MS is negatively correlated with depression, but not with fatigue. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 124: 171–175. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01447.x
- Issue online: 8 AUG 2011
- Version of Record online: 29 SEP 2010
- Accepted for publication August 30, 2010
- multiple sclerosis;
- vitamin D;
- 25-hydroxyvitamin D;
Knippenberg S, Bol Y, Damoiseaux J, Hupperts R, Smolders J. Vitamin D status in patients with MS is negatively correlated with depression, but not with fatigue. Acta Neurol Scand: 2011: 124: 171–175. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Background – Depressive symptoms and fatigue are frequent and disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Depression and fatigue have been associated with a poor vitamin D status, and a poor vitamin D status is often found in MS.
Aim – Assess whether vitamin D status contributes to depressive symptoms and fatigue in MS.
Methods – Patients with MS that participated in previous studies in which depression and fatigue were assessed and of whom serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were available within a timeframe of less than one half-life of 25(OH)D were included. Depression and fatigue were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory.
Results – Fifty-nine patients were included. Mean scores of fatigue and depression were 14.6 (SD 4.2) and 6.2 (SD 4.4), respectively. The mean vitamin D status was 62.3 nm (SD 27.8). Vitamin D status correlated negatively with depression (r = −0.326, P = 0.006). No significant correlation was found between vitamin D status and fatigue. In a multiple regression model, vitamin D status was not a significant contributor to depression, after controlling for age Expanded Disability Status Scale score and fatigue (P = 0.078). Alternatively, depression and fatigue did not contribute to vitamin D status.
Discussion – This study shows a negative correlation between vitamin D status and depressive symptoms in patients with MS. Although multiple confounders exist, we observed an indication that vitamin D status might contribute to the presence of depressive symptoms in MS. Therefore, further studies on vitamin D in MS should include depressive symptoms as outcome measures to confirm these findings.