Conflict of interest The authors have stated explicitly that there are no conflicts of interest in connection with this article.
Pre-, peri- and neonatal risk factors for autism
Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012
© 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Volume 91, Issue 3, pages 287–300, March 2012
How to Cite
GUINCHAT, V., THORSEN, P., LAURENT, C., CANS, C., BODEAU, N. and COHEN, D. (2012), Pre-, peri- and neonatal risk factors for autism. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 91: 287–300. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01325.x
Please cite this article as: Guinchat V, Thorsen P, Laurent C, Cans C, Bodeau N, Cohen D. Pre-, peri- and neonatal risk factors for autism. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2012; 91:287–300.
- Issue published online: 21 FEB 2012
- Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 15 NOV 2011 11:03PM EST
- Received: 9 September 2011, Accepted: 4 November 2011
- pervasive developmental disorders;
- risk factor;
Objective. To identify pre-, peri- and neonatal risk factors for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Methods. We searched the Medline database through March 2011 for relevant case–control and population-based studies on pre-, peri- and neonatal hazards related to PDD, including autism. We identified 85 studies for this review. Data were extracted systematically and organized according to risk factors related to family history, pregnancy, gestational age, delivery, birth milestones and the neonate's condition at birth. Results. During the prenatal period, risk factors for PDD were advanced maternal or paternal ages, being firstborn vs. third or later, maternal prenatal medication use and mother's status as foreign born. During the perinatal and neonatal periods, the risk factors for PDD were preterm birth, breech presentation, planned cesarean section, low Apgar scores, hyperbilirubinemia, birth defect and a birthweight small for gestational age. The influence of maternal pre-eclampsia, diabetes, vomiting, infections and stress during pregnancy requires further study in order to determine risk for PDD. Discussion. Despite evidence for the association of some pre-, peri- and neonatal risk factors associated with PDD, it remains unclear whether these risks are causal or play a secondary role in shaping clinical expression in individuals with genetic vulnerability. A plausible hypothsesis is that improvements in obstetric and neonatal management have led to an increased rate of survivors with pre-existing brain damage. Given the variety of risk factors, we propose that future studies should investigate combinations of multiple factors, rather than focusing on a single factor.