We investigated the frequency of pathology, especially intrauterine adhesions, after instrumental evacuation within 24 h of delivery in a prospective observational intervention study on 100 women where a ‘see and treat’ hysteroscopy was performed after three to four months. There were two possible etiology groups: intrauterine adhesions [classified according by European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) grades I–IV] and residual tissue (classified as minimal and considerable). Adhesions were found in 18% of patients, as follows: ESGE I–II in 13% and ESGE III–IV in 5%. Residual tissue was present in 33%, as follows: minimal in 23% and considerable in 10%. There were 6% who had both mild adhesions and minimal residual tissue, while 43% of the women had normal intrauterine findings. Of the women, 32% were symptomatic (spotting, bleeding). Only residual tissue correlated with symptoms (r=0.376; p<0.001). There is a high prevalence of acquired intrauterine pathology (57%) in women who require early instrumental evacuation.