Conflict of interest Karoliina Halmesmäki has received a congress registration fee from Bayer Schering Pharma, Turku Finland. Marjo Tuppurainen is a member of Amgen advisory board and Bayer Schering Pharma advisory board and clinical trials and a former member of Roche advisory board. Ritva Hurskainen has received lecture fees from several pharmaceutical companies, including Bayer Schering Pharma, Turku, Finland. All the other authors have stated explicitly that there are no conflicts of interest in connection with this article.
MAIN RESEARCH ARTICLE
The effect of hysterectomy or levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on premenstrual symptoms in women treated for menorrhagia: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial
Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012
© 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Volume 91, Issue 3, pages 318–325, March 2012
How to Cite
LEMINEN, H., HELIÖVAARA-PEIPPO, S., HALMESMÄKI, K., TEPERI, J., GRENMAN, S., KIVELÄ, A., TUPPURAINEN, M., PAAVONEN, J. and HURSKAINEN, R. (2012), The effect of hysterectomy or levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on premenstrual symptoms in women treated for menorrhagia: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 91: 318–325. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01340.x
Please cite this article as: Leminen H, Heliövaara-Peippo S, Halmesmäki K, Teperi J, Grenman S, Kivelä A, et al. The effect of hysterectomy or levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on premenstrual symptoms in women treated for menorrhagia: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91: DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01340.x.
- Issue published online: 21 FEB 2012
- Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 14 DEC 2011 12:58AM EST
- Received: 9 September 2011, Accepted: 5 December 2011
- Premenstrual symptoms;
- levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system;
Objective. To study the effect of hysterectomy or levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on premenstrual symptoms in women treated for menorrhagia. Design. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Setting. Five university hospitals in Finland. Sample. A cohort of 236 women, aged 35–49 years (mean 43 years) referred for menorrhagia between 1994 and 1997. Women were not diagnosed with premenstrual syndrome. Methods. Women were randomized to treatment by hysterectomy (n=117) or LNG-IUS (n=119). Analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat and actual treatment principles. Women using estrogen therapy and women who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were excluded from the analyses. Main outcome measures. The occurrence of premenstrual symptoms evaluated by questionnaires at baseline and at follow-up visits six and 12 months after the treatment and five years after the randomization. Results. Premenstrual symptoms decreased significantly in both groups by six months (p≤0.028) without significant differences between the groups, except that in the LNG-IUS group the decrease of breast tenderness was seen first by 12 months (p=0.048). Even though 42% of the women assigned to treatment with LNG-IUS were hysterectomized during the follow-up period, the results of intention-to-treat and actual treatment analyses were comparable. Conclusions. Both hysterectomy and LNG-IUS seem to alleviate premenstrual symptoms of women treated for menorrhagia, while the effect of these treatments on premenstrual syndrome remains unsettled.