• 1
    Weeks AD. The retained placenta. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol.2008;22:110317.
  • 2
    Abou Zahr C. Global burden of maternal death and disability. Br Med Bull.2003;67:111.
  • 3
    Hazra S, Chilaka VN, Rajendran S, Konje JC. Massive postpartum haemorrhage as a cause of maternal morbidity in a large tertiary hospital. J Obstet Gynaecol.2004;24:51920.
  • 4
    Ely JW, Rijhsinghani A, Bowdler NC, Dawson JD. The association between manual removal of the placenta and postpartum endometritis following vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol.1995;86:10026.
  • 5
    Winter C, Macfarlane A, Deneux-Tharaux C, Zhang WH, Alexander S, Brocklehurst P, et al. Variations in policies for management of the third stage of labour and the immediate management of postpartum haemorrhage in Europe. Br J Obstet Gynaecol.2007;114:84554.
  • 6
    Magann EF, Evans S, Chauhan SP, Lanneau G, Fisk AD, Morrison JC. The length of the third stage of labor and the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol.2005;105:2903.
  • 7
    National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK). 2007.
  • 8
    Ronsmans C, Graham WJ, Lancet Maternal Survival Series steering group. Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why. Lancet.2006;368:11891200.
  • 9
    Poeschmann RP, Doesburg WH, Eskes TK. A randomized comparison of oxytocin, sulprostone and placebo in the management of the third stage of labour. Br J Obstet Gynaecol.1991;98:52830.
  • 10
    Rogers MS, Yuen PM, Wong S. Avoiding manual removal of placenta: evaluation of intra-umbilical injection of uterotonics using the Pipingas technique for management of adherent placenta. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand.2007;86:4854.
  • 11
    Weeks AD, Alia G, Vernon G, Namayanja A, Gosakan R, Majeed T, et al. Umbilical vein oxytocin for the treatment of retained placenta (Release Study): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet.2010;375:1417.
  • 12
    van Beekhuizen HJ, de Groot AN, De Boo T, Burger D, Jansen N, Lotgering FK. Sulprostone reduces the need for the manual removal of the placenta in patients with retained placenta: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol.2006;194:44650.
  • 13
    Knight M, Callaghan WM, Berg C, Alexander S, Bouvier-Colle MH, Ford JB, et al. Trends in postpartum hemorrhage in high resource countries: a review and recommendations from the International Postpartum Hemorrhage Collaborative Group. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.2009;9:55.
  • 14
    Ahonen J, Stefanovic V, Lassila R. Management of post-partum haemorrhage. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand.2010;54:116478.
  • 15
    Sheiner E, Sarid L, Levy A, Seidman DS, Hallak M. Obstetric risk factors and outcome of pregnancies complicated with early postpartum hemorrhage: a population-based study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med.2005;18:14954.
  • 16
    Zhou W, Nielsen GL, Larsen H, Olsen J.Induced abortion and placenta complications in subsequent pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand.2001;80:111520.
  • 17
    Tandberg A, Albrechtsen S, Iversen OE. Manual removal of the placenta. Incidence and clinical significance. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand.1999;78:336.
  • 18
    Gordon JE, Gideon H, Wyon JB. Midwifery practices in rural Punjab, India. Am J Obstet Gynecol.1965;93:73442.
  • 19
    Gulmezoglu AM, Forna F, Villar J, Hofmeyr GJ. Prostaglandins for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2001;4:CD000494.
  • 20
    Soltani H, Hutchon DR, Poulose TA. Timing of prophylactic uterotonics for the third stage of labour after vaginal birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2010;8:CD006173.
  • 21
    Hidar S, Jennane TM, Bouguizane S, Lassoued L, Bibi M, Khairi H. The effect of placental removal method at cesarean delivery on perioperative hemorrhage: a randomized clinical trial ISRCTN 49779257. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol.2004;117:17982.
  • 22
    Bider D, Dulitzky M, Goldenberg M, Lipitz S, Mashiach S. Intraumbilical vein injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha in retained placenta. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol.1996;64:5961.
  • 23
    Laajoki VI, Kivikoski AI. Sulprostone in the control of postpartum haemorrhage. Acta Chir Hung.1986;27:1658.
  • 24
    Goffinet F, Haddad B, Carbonne B, Sebban E, Papiernik E, Cabrol D. Practical use of sulprostone in the treatment of hemorrhages during delivery. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris).1995;24:20916.
  • 25
    Zhang WH, Deneux-Tharaux C, Brocklehurst P, Juszczak E, Joslin M, Alexander S and EUPHRATES Group. Effect of a collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery: cluster randomised trial in 13 European countries. Br Med J.2010;340:c293.
  • 26
    Egarter CH, Husslein P. Biochemistry of myometrial contractility. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol.1992;6:75569.
  • 27
    Baumgarten K, Schmidt J, Horvat A, Neumann M, Cerwenka R, Gruber W, et al. Uterine motility after post-partum application of sulprostone and other oxytocics. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol.1983;16:18192.
  • 28
    Krumnikl JJ, Bottiger BW, Strittmatter HJ, Motsch J. Complete recovery after 2 h of cardiopulmonary resuscitation following high-dose prostaglandin treatment for atonic uterine haemorrhage. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand.2002;46:116870.