The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personality deviations in the development and relapses of major depression. The study is based on an investigation of an initial sample of 298 psychiatric out-patients, who were re-evaluated after 6 years when the sample included 253 patients. SCID-R was used for assessment of possible relapses and new cases, and a logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best prediction of the recurrence of depression. Borderline personality disorders and dependency predicted relapses. In addition, borderline personality disorders, together with avoidant personality disorders, predicted the development of new cases. Comorbid clinical syndromes appear to be of no importance. These findings suggest that the comorbidity with personality deviations accounts for the chronicity and poor prognosis in major depression.