• treatment compliance;
  • psychosis;
  • schizophrenia

Kampman O, Lehtinen K. Compliance in psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999: 100: 167–175. © Munksgaard 1999.

Objective: To review the literature on compliance in psychoses and to evaluate the significance of the different compliance components presented.

Method: Different definitions of the term compliance were first gathered. A search covering the years 1974–1997 was conducted in Medline and PsycLit databases using the keywords ‘schizophrenia’ or ‘psychosis’ and ‘compliance’. The studies that took compliance into account as a separate variable were collected for further analysis.

Results: Unpleasant side-effects of medication, attitudes towards medication, delusional symptoms, substance abuse, insight, and supportive family environment were found to have the strongest correlation with compliance. The influence of cognitive impairment is not clearly proven. Integrated, cognitive-behavioural and psychoedu-cational treatment models include several methods to improve therapeutic alliance and compliance,

Conclusion: As the majority of the studies have concentrated on neuroleptic treatment, the medication-related factors are best documented. In clinical practice, treatment compliance is based on patient-related, medication-related and interactional factors, such as treatment model and therapeutic alliance. Difficulties with insight and cognitive functioning are specific patient-related factors in the treatment of psychoses.