Does nicotine affect D2 receptor upregulation? A case–control study
Article first published online: 3 MAR 2004
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Volume 109, Issue 4, pages 313–317, April 2004
How to Cite
Silvestri, S., Negrete, J. C., Seeman, M. V., Shammi, C. M. and Seeman, P. (2004), Does nicotine affect D2 receptor upregulation? A case–control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109: 313–317. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00293.x
- Issue published online: 3 MAR 2004
- Article first published online: 3 MAR 2004
- Accepted for publication December 15, 2003
- D2 receptor upregulation;
- human PET study
Objective: Nicotine has a powerful preventive effect on neuroleptic-induced dopamine D2 receptor upregulation in the rat. The aim of this human positron emission tomography (PET) study was to compare upregulation in a smoker and a non-smoker, both of whom had received haloperidol for the same duration of time.
Method: Two subjects who had been treated for 16 years with a constant dose of haloperidol were scanned after temporary haloperidol withdrawal, using [11C]-raclopride.
Results: The non-smoker, who had received a dose of 10 mg/day, showed a D2 upregulation of 98% and developed severe and persistent symptoms of tardive dyskinesia (TD) upon withdrawal. The chronic smoker, who had been treated with 40 mg/day, displayed a D2 upregulation of 71% and did not develop TD.
Conclusion: These human observations agree with animal data which showed that nicotine can decrease neuroleptic-induced D2 receptor upregulation. This property of nicotine may play a protective role in movement disorders whose pathophysiology involves D2 receptor hypersensitivity.