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Keywords:

  • anxiety;
  • depression;
  • headache;
  • migraine;
  • panic disorder

Objective:  This study investigated independent comorbidities and factors associated with migraine and chronic daily headache (CDH) in out-patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Method:  Consecutive psychiatric out-patients fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria of MDD were enrolled. Headaches were diagnosed based on the criteria proposed by the second edition of the International Classification of the Headache Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidities were checked using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and duration of major depressive episodes (MDE) were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to decide risk factors.

Results:  One hundred and fifty-one patients (34 men and 117 women) participated in the study, among which 73 (48.3%) reported a history of migraine and 32 (21.2%) reported CDH during this MDE. Higher HAMD scores, female gender, and chronic depression were independently associated with migraine or CDH.

Conclusion:  For MDD patients with a higher depressive severity and longer duration of MDE, especially female gender, surveillance of migraine and CDH might be indicated.