Has repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for depression improved? A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the recent vs. the earlier rTMS studies
Article first published online: 7 JUL 2007
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Volume 116, Issue 3, pages 165–173, September 2007
How to Cite
Gross, M., Nakamura, L., Pascual-Leone, A. and Fregni, F. (2007), Has repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for depression improved? A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the recent vs. the earlier rTMS studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116: 165–173. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01049.x
- Issue published online: 7 JUL 2007
- Article first published online: 7 JUL 2007
- Accepted for publication May 2, 2007
- antidepressive agents;
- transcranial magnetic stimulation;
- electric stimulation therapy
Objective: To investigate whether the recent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies on depression using new parameters of stimulation have shown improved clinical results.
Method: We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the rTMS studies on depression published in the past 12 months comparing these results with an earlier meta-analysis that analyzed the results of the initial rTMS studies on depression.
Results: Using our inclusion criteria, we selected the meta-analysis of Martin [Br J Psychiatry (2003) Vol. 182, 480–491] that included 13 studies (324 patients) and five studies for the recent meta-analysis (274 patients). The pooled effect size (standardized mean difference between pretreatment vs. post-treatment) from the random effects model was −0.76 (95% confidence interval, CI, −1.01 to −0.51). This result was significantly larger than that of the earlier meta-analysis (−0.35, 95% CI −0.66 to −0.04).
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that recent rTMS clinical trials have shown larger antidepressant effects when compared with the earlier studies.