• 1
    Barker AT, Jalinous R, Freeston IL. Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex. Lancet 1985;1:11061107.
  • 2
    Burt T, Lisanby SH, Sackeim HA. Neuropsychiatric applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation: a meta analysis. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2002;5:73103.
  • 3
    Martin JL, Barbanoj MJ, Schlaepfer TE, Thompson E, Perez V, Kulisevsky J. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2003;182:480491.
  • 4
    Pascual-Leone A, Rubio B, Pallardo F, Catala MD. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression. Lancet 1996;348:233237.
  • 5
    Deeks J, Altman D, Bradburn M. Statistical methods for examining heterogeneity and combining results from several studies in meta-analysis. In: Systematic reviews in health care: meta-analysis in context. eds. EggerM, SmithGD, AltmanDG, 2nd edn. London: BMJ Books, 2001: (2003 [printing]); 2003. 3
  • 6
    Egger M, Smith GD, Phillips AN. Meta-analysis: principles and procedures. BMJ 1997;315:15331537.
  • 7
    Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;315:629634.
  • 8
    Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Russo J, Avery DH. A meta-analysis of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Psychopharmacol Bull 2001;35:149169.
  • 9
    Kozel FA, George MS. Meta-analysis of left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat depression. J Psychiatr Pract 2002;8:270275.
  • 10
    Couturier JL. Efficacy of rapid-rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2005;30:8390.
  • 11
    Fregni F, Pascual-Leone A. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2005;30:434; author reply, 435.
  • 12
    Januel D, Dumortier G, Verdon CM et al. A double-blind sham controlled study of right prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): therapeutic and cognitive effect in medication free unipolar depression during 4 weeks. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006;30:126130.
  • 13
    Avery DH, Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Fawaz W et al. A controlled study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in medication-resistant major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2006;59:187194.
  • 14
    Rossini D, Magri L, Lucca A, Giordani S, Smeraldi E, Zanardi R. Does rTMS hasten the response to escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine in patients with major depressive disorder? A double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66:15691575.
  • 15
    Fitzgerald PB, Benitez J, De Castella A, Daskalakis ZJ, Brown TL, Kulkarni J. A randomized, controlled trial of sequential bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:8894.
  • 16
    Garcia-Toro M, Salva J, Daumal J et al. High (20-Hz) and low (1-Hz) frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation as adjuvant treatment in medication-resistant depression. Psychiatry Res 2006;146:5357.
  • 17
    Drevets WC. Functional anatomical abnormalities in limbic and prefrontal cortical structures in major depression. Prog Brain Res 2000;126:413431.
  • 18
    Bench CJ, Frackowiak RS, Dolan RJ. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow on recovery from depression. Psychol Med 1995;25:247261.
  • 19
    Nahas Z, Teneback CC, Kozel A et al. Brain effects of TMS delivered over prefrontal cortex in depressed adults: role of stimulation frequency and coil-cortex distance. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;13:459470.
  • 20
    Rumi DO, Gattaz WF, Rigonatti SP et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation accelerates the antidepressant effect of amitriptyline in severe depression: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57:162166.
  • 21
    Fregni F, Marcolin MA, Myczkowski M et al. Predictors of antidepressant response in clinical trials of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2006;9:641654.
  • 22
    Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Sole J, Brasil-Neto JP, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Seizure induction and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Lancet 1992;339:997.
  • 23
    Klein E, Kreinin I, Chistyakov A et al. Therapeutic efficacy of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: a double-blind controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:315320.
  • 24
    Loo CK, Mitchell PB, Croker VM et al. Double-blind controlled investigation of bilateral prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of resistant major depression. Psychol Med 2003;33:3340.
  • 25
    Fitzgerald PB, Brown TL, Marston NA, Daskalakis ZJ, De Castella A, Kulkarni J. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60:10021008.
  • 26
    O'Reardon JP, Blumner KH, Peshek AD, Pradilla RR, Pimiento PC. Long-term maintenance therapy for major depressive disorder with rTMS. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66:15241528.
  • 27
    Moreno C, Arango C, Parellada M, Shaffer D, Bird H. Antidepressants in child and adolescent depression: where are the bugs? Acta Psychiatr Scand 2007;115:184195.
  • 28
    Thomsen PH. The treatment of child and adolescent depression: a matter of concern? Acta Psychiatr Scand 2007;115:169170.
  • 29
    Fogel J, Eaton WW, Ford DE. Minor depression as a predictor of the first onset of major depressive disorder over a 15-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;113:3643.