No association of depression and anxiety with the metabolic syndrome: the Norwegian HUNT study

Authors

  • B. Hildrum,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Namsos Hospital, Namsos, Norway
    2. Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
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  • A. Mykletun,

    1. Research Centre for Health Promotion, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    2. Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Mental Health, Oslo, Norway
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  • K. Midthjell,

    1. HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Verdal, Norway
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  • K. Ismail,

    1. Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK
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  • A. A. Dahl

    1. Department of Clinical Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radiumhospital, Rikshospitalet University Clinic, Oslo, Norway
    2. Faculty Division, The Norwegian Radiumhospital, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
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Dr B. Hildrum, Namsos Hospital, N-7800 Namsos, Norway.
E-mail: bjorn.hildrum@hnt.no

Abstract

Objective:  To examine the associations of depression and anxiety with the metabolic syndrome.

Method:  Cross-sectional study of 9571 participants aged 20–89 years in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2). We assessed anxiety and depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the metabolic syndrome with the International Diabetes Federation criteria.

Results:  Despite generous statistical power and use of both continuous and categorical approaches, we found no association between anxiety or depression and the metabolic syndrome in models adjusted for age, gender, educational level, smoking, physical activity and pulse rate. When adjusted for age and gender only, we found a weak positive association for depression when a continuous measure was used, but not at the case level. The findings were similar across sexes, and robust for exclusion of cardiovascular disease and antidepressants.

Conclusion:  In this largest study to date we found no association of anxiety and depression with the metabolic syndrome.

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