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Association of depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome in men

Authors

  • H. Viinamäki,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
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  • T. Heiskanen,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
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  • S. M. Lehto,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
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  • L. Niskanen,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
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  • H. Koivumaa-Honkanen,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
    3. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu
    4. Lapland Hospital District, Muurola Hospital, Rovaniemi, Finland
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  • T. Tolmunen,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
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  • K. Honkalampi,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
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  • T. Saharinen,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
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  • K. Haatainen,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
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  • J. Hintikka

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio
    2. Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio
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Heimo Viinamäki, Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, PO Box 1777, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.
E-mail: heimo.viinamaki@kuh.fi

Abstract

Objective:  To explore the relationship between several indicators of depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Method:  A population-based sample with high (HMS group) or low (LMS group) levels of mental symptoms, including those of depression, in three follow-ups participated in a clinical examination in 2005 (= 223). MetS was determined according to the NCEP criteria.

Results:  The prevalence of MetS was 49% in men and 21% in women. Men with MetS had higher rates of major depressive disorder than other men. They also displayed higher Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) scores and more often signs of suicidality. In logistic regression analyses, higher HDRS scores (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04–1.64) and belonging to the HMS group (OR 10.1, 95% CI 1.98–51.3) were independent associates for MetS but only in men.

Conclusion:  The results highlight that there is an association between long-term depressive symptoms and the emergence of MetS, especially in men.

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