• 1
    MrazekPJ, HaggertyRJ, eds. Reducing risks for mental disorders: frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994.
  • 2
    Munoz RF, Mrazek PJ, Haggerty RJ. Institute of medicine report on prevention of mental disorders: summary and commentary. Am Psychol 1996;51:11161122.
  • 3
    Häfner H, Maurer K, Ruhrmann S et al. Early detection and secondary prevention of psychosis: facts and visions. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2004;254:117128.
  • 4
    Faraone SV, Brown CH, Glatt SJ, Tsuang MT. Preventing schizophrenia and psychotic behaviour: definitions and methodological issues. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47:527537.
  • 5
    Yung AR, Mcgorry PD. The prodromal phase of first-episode psychosis: past and current conceptualizations. Schizophr Bull 1996;22:353370.
  • 6
    Yung AR, Mcgorry PD. Prediction of psychosis: setting the stage. Br J Psychiatry 2007;191(suppl. 51):s1s8.
  • 7
    Klosterkötter J, Hellmich M, Steinmeyer EM, Schultze-Lutter F. Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:158164.
  • 8
    Hafner H, Maurer K, Trendler G, An Der Heiden W, Schmidt M, Konnecke R. Schizophrenia and depression: challenging the paradigm of two separate diseases: a controlled study of schizophrenia, depression and healthy controls. Schizophr Res 2005;77:1124.
  • 9
    Mcglashan TH, Zipursky RB, Perkins D et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:790799.
  • 10
    Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Yuen HP et al. Psychosis prediction: 12-month follow up of a high-risk (“prodromal”) group. Schizophr Res 2003;60:2132.
  • 11
    Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Yuen HP, Mcgorry PD. Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high-risk group: psychopathology and clinical features. Schizophr Res 2004;67:131142.
  • 12
    Yung AR, Yuen HP, Mcgorry PD et al. Mapping the onset of psychosis: the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2005;39:964971.
  • 13
    Miller T, Mcglashan T, Woods SW et al. Symptom assessment in schizophrenic prodromal states. Psychiatr Q 1999;70:273287.
  • 14
    Miller TJ, Mcglashan TH, Rosen JL et al. Prodromal assessment with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and the scale of prodromal symptoms: predictive validity, interrater reliability, and training to reliability. Schizophr Bull 2003;29:703715.
  • 15
    Haroun N, Dunn L, Haroun A, Cadenhead KS. Risk and protection in prodromal schizphrenia: ethical implications for clinical practice and future research. Schizophr Bull 2006;32:166178.
  • 16
    Gross G, Huber G, Klosterkötter J, Linz M. Bonner Skala für die Beurteilung von Basissymptomen. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.
  • 17
    Schultze-Lutter F, Klosterkotter J. Bonn Scale for the assessment of basic symptoms – prediction list, BSABS-P. Cologne: University of Cologne, 2002.
  • 18
    Klosterkötter J, Ruhrmann S, Schultze-Lutter F et al. The European prediction of psychosis study (EPOS): integrating early recognition and intervention in Europe. World Psychiatry 2005;4:161167.
  • 19
    Pantelis C, Velakoulis D, Mcgorry PD et al. Neuroanatomical abnormalities before and after onset of psychosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI comparison. Lancet 2003;361:281288.
  • 20
    Häfner H, Nowotny B, Loffler W, An Der Heiden W, Maurer K. When and how does schizophrenia produce social deficits? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995;246:1728.
  • 21
    Lieberman JA, Perkins D, Belger A et al. The early stages of schizophrenia: speculations on pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and therapeutic approaches. Biol Psychiatry 2001;50:884897.
  • 22
    Mcgorry PD, Yung AR, Phillips LJ. The “close-in” or ultra high-risk model: a safe and effective strategy for research and clinical intervention in prepsychotic mental disorder. Schizophr Bull 2003;29:771790.
  • 23
    Mcgorry PD, Yung AR, Phillips LJ et al. Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to first-episode psychosis in a clinical sample with subthreshold symptoms. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:921928.
  • 24
    Mcglashan TH. Early detection and intervention in psychosis: an ethical paradigm shift. Br J Psychiatry 2005;187(suppl. 48):s113s115.
  • 25
    Marshall M, Rathbone J. Early intervention for psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006. Art. No.: CD004718.
  • 26
    Olsen KA, Rosenbaum B. Prospective investigation of the prodromal state of schizophrenia: review of studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;113:247272.
  • 27
    Falloon IR. Early intervention for first episodes of schizophrenia: a preliminary exploration. Psychiatry 1992;55:415.
  • 28
    Larsen TK, Friis S, Haahr U et al. Early detection and intervention in first-episode schizophrenia: a critical review. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001;103:323334.
  • 29
    Morrison AP, French P, Walford L et al. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of psychosis in people at ultra-high risk. Br J Psychiatry 2004;185:291297.
  • 30
    Phillips LJ, Mcgorry PD, Yuen HP, Ward J, Donovan K, Kelly D. Medium term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of interventions for young people at ultra high risk of psychosis. Schizophr Res 2007;96:2533.
  • 31
    Morrison AP, French P, Parker S et al. Three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy for the prevention of psychosis in people at ultrahigh risk. Schizophr Bull 2007;33:682687.
  • 32
    Bechdolf A, Wagner M, Veith V et al. A randomized controlled multicenter trial of cognitive behaviour therapy in the early initial prodromal state of psychosis. Schizophr Res 2006;86(suppl.):S8.
  • 33
    Bechdolf A, Wagner M, Ruhrmann S et al. CBT in the early initial prodromal state: 24-months results. Schizophr Res 2008;102:S33.
  • 34
    Amminger G, Schaefer MR, Papageorgiou K et al. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of early transition to psychosis in ultra-high risk individuals: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled treatment study. Schizophr Res 2007;33:418419.
  • 35
    Amminger GP, Schäfer M, Papageorgiou K et al. Indicated prevention of psychotic disorders with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Schizophr Res 2008;102:S252.
  • 36
    Nordentoft M, Thorup A, Petersen L et al. Transition rates from schizotypal disorder to psychotic disorder for first-contact patients included in the OPUS trial. A randomized clinical trial of integrated treatment and standard treatment. Schizophr Res 2006;83:2940.
  • 37
    Overall JE, Gorham DR. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychol Rep 1962;10:799812.
  • 38
    Andreasen NC, Flaum M, Arndt S. The Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH): an instrument for assessing diagnosis and psychopathology. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:615623.
  • 39
    Mcglashan TH, Zipursky RB, Perkins D et al. The PRIME North America randomized double-blind clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients at risk of being prodromally symptomatic for psychosis, I: study rationale and design. Schizophr Res 2003;61:718.
  • 40
    Kay SR, Opler LA. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1987;13:507518.
  • 41
    Cannon TD, Cadenhead K, Cornblatt B et al. Prediction of psychosis in youth at high clinical risk. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:2837.
  • 42
    Ruhrmann S, Schultze-Lutter F, Klosterkötter J. Early detection and intervention in the initial prodromal phase of schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry 2003;36(suppl. 3):s162s167.
  • 43
    Berger G, Dell’olio M, Amminger P et al. Neuroprotection in emerging psychotic disorders. Early Interv Psychiatry 2007;1:114127.
  • 44
    Petersen L, Jeppesen P, Thorup A et al. A randomized multicentre trial of integrated versus standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness. BMJ 2005;331:602.
  • 45
    Kéri S, Kelemen O, Janka Z. Therapy of mental states at high risk for psychosis: preliminary results from Hungary (article in Hungarian). Orv Hetil 2006;147:201204.
  • 46
    Cornblatt BA, Lencz T, Kane JM. Treatment of the schizophrenia prodrome: is it presently ethical? Schizophr Res 2001;51:3138.
  • 47
    Cornblatt BA. The New York high risk project to the hillside recognition and prevention (RAP) program. Am J Med Genet 2002;114:956966.
  • 48
    Cornblatt BA, Lencz T, Smith CW, Correll CU, Auther AM, Nakayama E. The schizophrenia prodrome revisited: a neurodevelopmental perspective. Schizophr Bull 2003;29:633651.
  • 49
    Cornblatt BA, Lencz T, Smith CW et al. Can antidepressants be used to treat the schizophrenia prodrome? Results of a prospective, naturalistic treatment study of adolescents J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68:546557.
  • 50
    Fusar-Poli P, Valmaggia L, Mcguire P. Can antidepressants prevent psychosis? Lancet 2007;370:17461748.
  • 51
    Broome MR, Woole JB, Johns LC et al. Outreach and support in south London (OASIS): implementation of a clinical service for prodromal psychosis and the at risk mental state. Eur Psychiatry 2005;20:372378.
  • 52
    Bechdolf A, Pukrop R, Kohn D, Tschinkel S, Veith V, Schultze-Lutter F. Subjective quality of life in subjects at risk for a first episode of psychosis: a comparison with first episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Schizophr Res 2005;79:137143.
  • 53
    Woods SW, Breier A, Zipursky RB, Perkins DO, Addington J, Miller TJ. Randomized trial of olanzapine versus placebo in the symptomatic acute treatment of the schizophrenic prodrome. Biol Psychiatry 2003;54:453464.
  • 54
    Ruhrmann S, Bechdolf A, Kühn KU et al. Acute effects of treatment for prodromal symptoms for people putatively in a late initial prodromal state of psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 2007;191(suppl. 51):s88s95.
  • 55
    Woods SW, Tully EM, Walsh BC, Hawkins KA, Callahan JL, Cohen SJ. Aripiprazole in the treatment of the psychosis prodrome: an open-label pilot study. Br J Psychiatry 2007;191(suppl. 51):s96s101.
  • 56
    Woods SW, Walsh B, Pearlson GD, Mcglashan TH. Glycine treatment of prodromal symptoms. Schizophr Res 2006;86:S7.
  • 57
    Yung AR, Buckby JA, Cosgrave EM et al. Association between psychotic experiences and depression in a clinical sample over 6 months. Schizophr Res 2007;91:246253.
  • 58
    Yung A. Prognostic factors for progression to psychosis in high risk youth. Evid Based Ment Health 2008;11:72.
  • 59
    International Early Psychosis Association Writing Group. International clinical practice guidelines for early psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 2005;187(suppl. 48):s120s124.