• 1
    Cade J. Lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement. Med J Aust 1949;36:349352.
  • 2
    Schou M, Juel-Nielsen N, Stromgren E, Voldby H. Lithium in therapy of manic psychoses.(in Danish). Ugeskr Laeger 1955;117:93101.
  • 3
    Grof P. Has the effectiveness of lithium changed? Impact of the variety of lithium’s effects. Neuropsychopharmacol 1998;19:183188.
  • 4
    Alda M, Turecki G, Jaitovitch-Groisman I et al. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity of bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 8 2006;8(Suppl. 1):60.
  • 5
    Grof P, Robbins W, Alda M et al. Protective effect of pregnancy in women with lithium-responsive bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2000;61:3139.
  • 6
    Duffy A, Alda M, Kutcher S, Fusee C, Grof P. Psychiatric symptoms and syndromes among adolescent children of parents with lithium-responsive or lithium-nonresponsive bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:431433.
  • 7
    Duffy A, Alda M, MacQueen G et al. A comprehensive longitudinal study of the offspring of lithium responsive and lithium non-responsive bipolar parents. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 2004;110:10.
  • 8
    Duffy A, Alda M, Kutcher S et al. Prospective longitudinal follow-up study of the offspring of lithium responsive and lithium non-responsive bipolar parents. Bipolar Disord 2001;3(Suppl. 1):34.
  • 9
    Duffy A, Alda M, Crawford L, Milin R, Grof P. The early manifestations of bipolar disorder: a longitudinal prospective study of the offspring of bipolar parents. Bipolar Disord 2007;9:828838.
  • 10
    Duffy A. Does bipolar disorder exist in children? A selected review. Can J Psychiatry 2007;52:409417.
  • 11
    Duffy A, Alda M, Milin R, Grof P. A consecutive series of treated affected offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: is response associated with the clinical profile? Can J Psychiatry 2007;52:369375.
  • 12
    Duffy A, Alda M, Hajek T, Grof P. The early course of bipolar disorder in a prospective study of high-risk offspring. Br J Psychiatry 2009;195:13.
  • 13
    Duffy A, Alda M, Hajek T, Sherry S, Grof P. Early stages in the development of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2009;doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.05.022.
  • 14
    Angst J, Baastrup PC, Grof P, Hippius H, Poldinger W, Weiss P. Clinical course of affective disorders. Psychiatry 1973;76:489500.
  • 15
    Grof P. Selecting effective treatments for bipolar disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64(Suppl. 5):5361.
  • 16
    Kim-Cohen J, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Harrington H-L, Milne BJ, Poulton R. Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60:709717.
  • 17
    Eaves L, Silberg J, Erkanli A. Resolving multiple epigenetic pathways to adolescent depression. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2003;44:10061014.
  • 18
    Geller B, Zimerman B, Williams M, DelBello MP, Frazier J, Beringer L. Phenomenology of prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder: examples of elated mood, grandiose behaviours, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts and hypersexuality. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2002;12:39.
  • 19
    Geller B, Tillman R, Bolhofner K, Zimerman B. Child bipolar I disorder: prospective continuity with adult bipolar I disorder; characteristics of second and third episodes; predictors of 8-year outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:11251133.
  • 20
    Akiskal HS, Downs J, Jordan P, Watson S, Daugherty D, Pruitt DB. Affective disorders in referred children and younger siblings of manic-depressives: mode of onset and prospective course. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:9961003.
  • 21
    Hammen C, Burge D, Burney E, Adrian C. Longitudinal study of diagnoses in children of women with unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990;47:11121117.
  • 22
    Carlson GA, Weintraub S. Childhood behavior problems and bipolar disorder – relationship or coincidence? J Affect Disord 1993;28:145153.
  • 23
    Reichart CG, Nolen WA. Earlier onset of bipolar disorder in children by antidepressants or stimulants? An hypothesis. J Affect Disord 2004;78:8184.
  • 24
    Duffy A. Lithium treatment in children and adolescents: a selected review and integration of research findings. In: BauerM, GrofP, Muller-OerlinghausenB, eds. Lithium in neuropsychiatry: the comprehensive guide. London, UK: Taylor & Francis Book Ltd, 2006:193206.
  • 25
    Biederman J, Mick E, Prince J et al. Systematic chart review of the pharmacologic treatment of comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in youth with bipolar disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1999;92:47256.
  • 26
    Klerman GL, Lavori P, Rice J et al. Birth-order cohort trends in rates of major depressive disorder among relatives of patients with affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:689693.
  • 27
    Grof E, Grof P, Brown GM, Downie S. Lithium effects on neuroendocrine function. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1984;85:41546.
  • 28
    Grof E, Grof P, Brown GM. Investigations of lithium effects on neuroendocrine function in man. In: BirchMJ, ed. Lithium: inorganic pharmacology and psychiatric use. Oxford: IRL Press Ltd, 1987:177181.
  • 29
    Alda M, Grof P, Grof E. MN blood groups and bipolar disorder: evidence of genotypic association and Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. Biol Psychiatry 1998;44:361363.
  • 30
    Upadhyaya AK, Varma VK, Sankaranayanaran A. Lithium in prophylactic therapy of manic-depressive illness:biochemical correlates of response. Biol Psychiatry 1985;20:202205.
  • 31
    Mendels J, Fraser A, Baron J. Intraerythrocyte lithium ion concentration and longterm maintenance treatment. Lancet 1976;1:966.
  • 32
    Serry M. Lithium retention and response. Lancet 1969;1:12671268.
  • 33
    Sullivan JL, Cavenar JO, Maltbie A. Platelet-monoaminooxidase activity predicts response to lithium in manic-depressive illness. Lancet 1977;2:13251327.
  • 34
    Carroll BJ. Prediction of treatment outcome with lithium. In: CooperTN, GershonS, KlineN et al., eds. Lithium, controversies and unresolved issues. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, World Congress Lecture Series, 1979:171197.
  • 35
    Carman JS, Post RH, Teplitz TA, Goodwin FK. Divalent cations in predicting antidepressant response to lithium. Lancet 1974;21:454.
  • 36
    Goodwin FK, Post R, Dunner DL, Gordon EK. Cerebrospinaal amine metabolites in affective illness. Am J Psychiatry 1973;130:7379.
  • 37
    Buchsbaum M, Goodwin F, Murphy D. AER in affective disorders. Am J Psychiatry 1971;128:1925.
  • 38
    Baron M, Gershon ES, Rudy V, Jonas WZ, Buchsbaum M. Lithium carbonate response in depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1975;32:11071111.
  • 39
    Maj M, Arena F, Loverno N et al. Factors associated with response to lithium prophylaxis in DSM III major depression and bipolar disorder. Pharmacopsychiat 1985;18:309313.
  • 40
    Kruger S, Alda M, Young LT, Goldapple K, Parikh S, Mayberg H. Risk and resilience markers in bipolar disorder: brain responses to emotional challenge in bipolar patients and their healthy siblings. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:257264.
  • 41
    Rybakowski JK, Suwalska A, Skibinska M et al. Prophylactic lithium response and polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene. J Pharmacopsychiat 2005;38:186170.
  • 42
    Rybakowski JK, Suwalska A, Czrski PM, Dmitrzak-Weglarz M, Leszczynska-Rodziewicz A, Hauser J. Prophylactic effect of lithium in bipolar affective illness may be related to serotonin transporter genotype. Pharmacol Rep 2005;57:124127.
  • 43
    Serretti A, Lilli R, Mandelli L, Lorenzi C, Smeraldi E. Serotonin transporter gene associated with lithium prophylaxis in mood disorders. Pharmacogenomics J 2001;1:171177.
  • 44
    Turecki G, Grof P, Grof E et al. Mapping susceptibility genes for bipolar disorder: a pharmacogenetic approach based on excellent response to lithium. Mol Psychiatry 2001;6:570578.
  • 45
    Alda M, Turecki G, Sun X et al. Combining clinical and biochemical phenotypes in mapping susceptibility genes for bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 2006;141:B713.
  • 46
    Grof P, Duffy A, Cavazzoni P et al. Is response to prophylactic lithium a familial trait? J Clin Psychiatry 2002;63:942947.
  • 47
    Segurado R, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Levinson DF et al. Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part III: Bipolar disorder. Am J Hum Genet 2003;73:4962.
  • 48
    Passmore MJ, Garnham J, Duffy A et al. Phenotypic spectra of bipolar disorder in lithium responders vs. lamotrigine. Bipolar Disord 2003;5:110114.
  • 49
    Alda M, Grof P, Zvolsky P. Genetic factors and response to lithium treatment. In: BauerM, GrofP, Mueller-OerlinghausenB, eds. Lithium in neuropsychiatry:the comprehensive guide. London: Informa, 2006:423432.
  • 50
    Grof P, Lane J, MacCrimmon D et al. Clinical and laboratory correlates of the response to long-term lithium treatment. In: StromgrenE, SchouaM, eds. Origin, prevention and treatment of affective disorders. London: Academic Press, 1979:2740.
  • 51
    Grof P, Hux M, Grof E, Arato M. Prediction of response to stabilizing lithium treatment. Pharmacopsychiat 1983;16:195200.
  • 52
    Grof P, Alda M, Grof E, Fox D, Cameron P. The challenge of predicting response to stabilising lithium treatment. The importance of patient selection. [Review]. Br J Psychiatry 1993;163(Suppl. 21):1619-19
  • 53
    Abou-Saleh MT. Who responds to prophylactic lithium therapy? Br J Psychiatry 1993;21(Suppl.):2026.
  • 54
    Maj M. Clinical prediction of response to lithium prophylaxis in bipolar patients: a critical update. Lithium 1992;3:1521.
  • 55
    Grof P. Selecting effective long-term treatment for bipolar patients: monotherapy and combination therapy. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64(Suppl. 5):5361.
  • 56
    Lane J, Grof P, Daigle L, Varma R. The Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory in the prediction of response to lithium stabilization. In: DufourH et al., eds. The prediction of lithium response. Marseille: University of Marseille, 1983:215220.
  • 57
    Demidenko N, Grof P, Alda M, Deshauer D, Duffy A. MMPI as a measure of subthreshold residual psychopathology among the offspring of lithium responsive and non-responsive bipolar parents. Bipolar Disord 2004;6:16.
  • 58
    Kleindienst N, Engel R, Greil W. Which clinical factors predict response to prophylactic lithium? A systematic review for bipolar disorders. Bipolar Disord 2005;7:404417.
  • 59
    Berghoefer A, Alda M, Mazda A et al. Long-term effectiveness of lithium in bipolar disorder: a multicenter investigation of patients with typical and atypical features. J Clin Psychiatry 2008;69:18601868.
  • 60
    McGorry P, Killackey E, Yung A. Early intervention in psychosis: concepts, evidence and future directions. World Psychiatry 2008;7:148156.