• 1
    Read J, Van Os J, Morrison AP, Ross CA. Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications [see comment]. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2005;112:330350.
  • 2
    Bendall S, Jackson HJ, Hulbert CA, Mcgorry PD. Childhood trauma and psychotic disorders: a systematic, critical review of the evidence. Schizophr Bull 2008;34:568579.
  • 3
    Morgan C, Fisher H. Environment and schizophrenia: environmental factors in schizophrenia: childhood trauma – a critical review. Schizophr Bull 2007;33:310.
  • 4
    Morgan C, Kirkbride J, Leff J et al. Parental separation, loss and psychosis in different ethnic groups: a cas-control study. Psychol Med 2007;37:495503.
  • 5
    Lysaker PH, Meyer PS, Evans JD, Clements CA, Marks KA. Childhood sexual trauma and psychosocial functioning in adults with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv 2001;52:14851488.
  • 6
    Lysaker PH, Beattie NL, Strasburger AM, Davis LW. Reported history of child sexual abuse in schizophrenia: associations with heightened symptom levels and poorer participation over four months in vocational rehabilitation. J Nerv Ment Dis 2005;193:790795.
  • 7
    Haviland MG, Sonne JL, Woods LR. Beyond posttraumatic stress disorder: object relations and reality testing disturbances in physically and sexually abused adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995;34:10541059.
  • 8
    Janssen I, Krabbendam L, Bak M et al. Childhood abuse as a risk factor for psychotic experiences. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2004;109:3845.
  • 9
    De Koning MB, Bloemen OJN, Van Amelsvoort TAMJ et al. Early intervention in patients at ultra high risk of psychosis: benefits and risks. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;119:426442.
  • 10
    Olsen KA, Rosenbaum B. Prospektive investigations of the prodromal state of schizophrenia: assessment instruments. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;113:273282.
  • 11
    Olsen KA, Rosenbaum B. Prospective investigations of the prodromal state of schizophrenia: review of studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;113:247272.
  • 12
    Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Yuen HP et al. Psychosis prediction: 12-month follow up of a high-risk (“prodromal”) group. Schizophr Res 2003;60:2132.
  • 13
    Thompson JL, Kelly M, Kimhy D et al. Childhood trauma and prodromal symptoms among individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. Schizophr Res 2009;108:176181.
  • 14
    Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Yuen HP, Mcgorry PD. Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high-risk group: psychopathology and clinical features. Schizophr Res 2004;67:131142.
  • 15
    Nelson B, Yung AR. Treatment of the schizophrenia prodrome. In: MueserKT, JesteDV, eds. The clinical handbook of schizophrenia. New York: Guilford Press, 2008:698715.
  • 16
    Yung AR, Yuen HP, Mcgorry PD et al. Mapping the onset of psychosis: the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2005;39:964971.
  • 17
    Campbell DW, Campbell J, King C, Parker B, Ryan J. The reliability and factor structure of the index of spouse abuse with African-American women. In: O’LearyKD, MaiuroRD, eds. Psychological abuse in violent domestic relationships. New York: Springer, 2001:101118.
  • 18
    APA. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
  • 19
    Yung AR, Stanford C, Cosgrave E et al. Testing the ultra high risk (prodromal) criteria for the prediction of psychosis in a clinical sample of young people. Schizophr Res 2006;84:5766.
  • 20
    Creamer M, Burgess P, Mcfarlane AC. Post-traumatic stress disorder: findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. Psychol Med 2001;31:12371247.
  • 21
    Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995;52:10481060.
  • 22
    WHO. Manual of the international classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revised edn. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation, 1994.
  • 23
    Phillips L, Nelson B, Yuen HP et al. Randomized controlled trial of interventions for young people at UHR of psychosis: study design and baseline characteristics. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2009; 43:818829.
  • 24
    Bebbington PE, Bhugra D, Brugha T et al. Psychosis, victimisation and childhood disadvantage: evidence from the second British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. Br J Psychiatry 2004;185:220226.
  • 25
    Laruelle M, Abi-Dargham A, Gil R, Kegeles L, Innis R. Increased dopamine transmission in schizophrenia: relationship to illness phases. Biol Psychiatry 1999;46:5672.
  • 26
    Guillin O, Abi-Dargham A, Laruelle M. Neurobiology of dopamine in schizophrenia. Int Rev Neurobiol 2007; 78:139.
  • 27
    Corcoran C, Walker E, Huot R et al. The stress cascade and schizophrenia: etiology and onset. Schizophr Bull 2003;29:671692.
  • 28
    Heim C, Newport DJ, Heit S et al. Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. JAMA 2000;2:284.
  • 29
    Mello AA, Mello MF, Carpenter LL, Price LH. Update on stress and depression: the role of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2003;25: 231238.
  • 30
    Docherty NM, St-Hilaire A, Aakre JM, Seghers JP. Life events and high-trait reactivity together predict psychotic symptom increases in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2009;35:638645.
  • 31
    Bechdolf A, Wagner M, Veith V et al. Randomized controlled multicentre trial of cognitive behaviour therapy in the early initial prodromal state: effects on social adjustment post treatment. Early Interv Psychiatry 2007;1:7178.
  • 32
    Morrison AP, French P, Walford L et al. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of psychosis in people at ultra-high risk: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2004;185:291297.
  • 33
    Cannon TD, Cadenhead K, Cornblatt B et al. Prediction of psychosis in youth at high clinical risk: a multisite longitudinal study in North America. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:2837.
  • 34
    Mcglashan TH, Zipursky RB, Perkins D et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:790799.
  • 35
    Svirskis T, Korkeila J, Heinimaa M et al. Axis-I disorders and vulnerability to psychosis. Schizophr Res 75 2005, 439446.
  • 36
    Dill DL, Chu JA, Grob MC, Eisen SV. The reliability of abuse history reports: a comparison of two inquiry formats. Compr Psychiatry 1991;32:166169.
  • 37
    Read J, Hammersley P, Rudegeair T. Why, when and how to ask about childhood abuse. Adv Psychiatr Treat 2007;13:101110.