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CSF biomarkers in suicide attempters – a principal component analysis

Authors


Daniel Lindqvist, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Psychiatry, Psychoimmunology Unit, Kioskgatan 19 Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden.
E-mail: Daniel.Lindqvist@med.lu.se

Abstract

Lindqvist D, Janelidze S, Erhardt S, Träskman-Bendz L, Engström G, Brundin L. CSF biomarkers in suicide attempters – a principal component analysis.

Objective:  The objective of the present study was to identify biological patterns (factors) among 20 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in suicide attempters and subsequently analyse their association with suicidal behaviour.

Method:  We measured kynurenic acid, orexin, homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, chemokines, matrix metalloproteases and cytokines in the CSF of 124 drug-free suicide attempters. Patients were evaluated for suicidality and psychiatric symptoms using well-defined psychiatric rating scales and followed-up regarding future suicide. We used principal component analysis to identify factors among the biological substances.

Results:  Four factors were extracted from the 20 biomarkers, explaining 52.4% of the total variance. Factors 1 and 2 were characterized by high loadings of chemokines and cytokines respectively. They were both associated with severe depressive symptoms. Factor 2 was also associated with a high suicidal intent. Factor 4 was characterized by strong loadings of the monoamine metabolites 5-HIAA and HVA, as well as orexin and interleukin-6. High scores on this factor were found in patients who performed a violent suicide attempt and in patients who subsequently completed suicide.

Conclusion:  Our results suggest that specific combinations of CSF biomarkers may discriminate between types of suicidal behaviour and indicate increased risk for future suicide.

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