Immunohistochemical expression of neuronal (n), endothelial (e), and inducible (i) NOS and their association with the type, grade, apoptotic index, proliferation of tumors and the survival of patients were investigated in 89 biopsies of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In tumor cells, expression of iNOS was detected in 35/89 (40%) cases, while 79/89 (89%) and 72/89 (81%) cases showed weak to intense positivity for eNOS and nNOS, respectively. Strong eNOS staining was seen significantly more often in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cells carcinomas (p=0.016), and iNOS immunoreactivity was seen more often in grade I-II tumors than in grade III tumors (p=0.024). There was no significant difference between the low and high apoptotic indexes or between the low and high proliferation rates of tumors in any instance of NOS staining. The patients with tumors showing high nNOS expression tended to have better survival than the others (p=0.06, log-rank; p=0.04, Bresow; p=0.048, Tarone-Ware). Similarly, the patients with tumors showing high expression of iNOS, eNOS and nNOS, as determined by a combined sum index, had a better survival than those with a low sum index for these enzymes (p<0.05). The results show intense expression of eNOS and nNOS, and moderate expression of iNOS in tumor cells of non-small cell carcinoma. Intense NOSs expression seems to be a favorable prognostic sign in non-small cell lung carcinoma.