SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Patino LA, Courvalin P, Perichon B. vanE gene cluster of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4405. J Bacteriol 2002;184: 645764.
  • 2
    Alvarez M, Tran JH, Chow N, Jacoby GA. Epidemiology of conjugative plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48: 5337.
  • 3
    Amábile-Cuevas CF, Chicurel ME. Bacterial plasmids and gene flux. Cell 1992;18999.
  • 4
    Andersson DI. Persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Curr Opin Microbiol 2003;6: 4526.
  • 5
    Arakawa Y, Murakami M, Suzuki K, Ito H, Wacharotayankun R, Ohsuka S, Kato N, Ohta M. A novel integron-like element carrying the metallo-β-lactamase gene blaIMP. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995;39: 16125.
  • 6
    Arlet G, Brami G, Dècrère D, Flippo A, Galtolot O, Lagrange PH, Philippon A. Molecular characterization by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of TEM β-lactamases. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1995;134: 1498500.
  • 7
    Arthur M, Molinas C, Mabilat C, Courvalin P. Detection of erythromycin resistance by the polymerase chain reaction using primers in conserved regions of erm rRNA methylase genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990;34: 20246.
  • 8
    Arthur M, Reynolds P, Courvalin P. Glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Trends Microbiol 1996;4: 4017.
  • 9
    Austin DJ, Kristinsson KG, Anderson RM. The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96: 11526.
  • 10
    Barlow RS, Pemberton JM, Desmarchelier PM, Gobius KS. Isolation and characterization of integron-containing bacteria without antibiotic selection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48: 83842.
  • 11
    Bekkaoui F, McNevin JP, Leung CH, Peterson GJ, Patel A, Bhatt RS, Bryan RN. Rapid detection of the mecA gene in methicillin resistant staphylococci using a colorimetric cycling probe technology. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1999;34: 8390.
  • 12
    Bergman M, Huikko S, Pihlajamäki M, Laippala P, Palva E, Huovinen P, Seppälä H, and the Finnish study group for Antimicrobial Resistance. Effect of macrolide consumption on erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes in Finland in 1997–2001. Clin Infect Dis 2002;38: 12516.
  • 13
    Bodrossy L, Sessitsch A. Oligonucleotide microarray in microbial diagnostics. Curr Opin Microbiol 2004;7: 24554.
  • 14
    Bonnet R. Growing group of extended-spectrum betalactamases: the CTX-M enzymes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48: 114.
  • 14a. 
    Boyd DA, Kibsey P, Roscoe D, Mulvey MR. Enterococcus faecium N03–0072 carries a new VanD-type vancomycin resistance determinant: characterization of the VanD5 operon. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;54: 6803.
  • 15
    Bradford PA. Extended-spectrum betalactamases in the 21st century: characterization, epidemiology, and detection of this important resistant threat. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001;14: 93351.
  • 16
    Brakstad OG, Aasbakk K, Maeland JA. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nuc gene. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30: 165460.
  • 17
    Brakstad OG, Maeland JA, Tveten Y. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of genes for Staphylococcus aureus thermonuclease and methicillin resistance and correlation with oxacillin resistance. APMIS 1993;101: 6818.
  • 18
    Bronzwaer SL, Cars O, Bucholz U, Molstad S, Goettsch W, Veldhuijzen IK, Kool JL, Sprenger MJ, Degener JE. A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8: 27882.
  • 19
    Bui MH, Stone GG, Nilius AM, Almer L, Flamm RK. PCR-oligonucleotide ligation assay for detection of point mutations associated with quinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 14569.
  • 20
    Bush K, Jacoby GA, Medeiros AA. A functional classification scheme for betalactamases and its correlation with molecular structure. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995;39: 121133.
  • 21
    Call DR, Bakko MK, Krug MJ, Roberts MC. Identifying antimicrobial resistance genes with DNA microarrays. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 32905.
  • 22
    Carias LL, Rudin SD, Donskey CJ, Rice LB. Genetic linkage and cotransfer of a novel, vanB-containing transposon (Tn5382) and a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 5 gene in a clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate. J Bacteriol 1998;180: 442634.
  • 23
    CDC. Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin – United States 2002. MMWR 2002;51: 5657.
  • 24
    Chambers HF. Methicillin resistance in staphylococci: molecular and biochemical basis and clinical implications. Clin Microb Rev 1997;10: 78191.
  • 25
    Chanawong A, M'Zali FH, Heritage J, Lulitanond A, Hawkey PM. Characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases of the SHV family using a combination of PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). FEMS Microb Lett 2000;184: 859.
  • 26
    Chisholm SA, Owen RJ, Teare EL, Saverymuttu S. PCR based diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and realtime determination of clarithromycin resistance directly from human gastric biopsy samples. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39: 121720.
  • 27
    Clark NC, Cooksey RC, Hill BC, Swenson JM, Tenover FC. Characterization of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci from U.S. hospitals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993;37: 23117.
  • 28
    Clewell DB, Flannagan SE, Jaworski DD. Unconstrained bacterial promiscuity: the Tn916-Tn1545 family of conjugative transposons. Trends Microbiol 1995;3: 22936.
  • 29
    Cooksey RC, Morlock GP, Glickman S, Crawford JT. Evaluation of a line probe assay kit for characterization of rpoB mutations in rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in New York City. J Clin Microbiol 1997;12813.
  • 30
    Cockerill FR III. Genetic methods for assessing antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43: 199212.
  • 31
    Cockerill FR III, Smith TF. Rapid-cycle real-time PCR: a revolution for clinical microbiology. ASM News 2002;68: 7783.
  • 32
    Coombs GW, Kay ID, Steven RA, Pearman JW, Bertolatti D, Grubb WB. Should genotypic testing be done on all phenotypically vancomycin-resistant enterococci detected in hospitals? J Clin Microbiol 1999;37: 122930.
  • 33
    Cosgrove S, Sakoulas G, Perencevich EN, Schwaber MJ, Karchmer AW, Carmeli Y. Comparison of mortality asociated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36: 539.
  • 34
    Courvalin P. Genotypic approach to the study of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991;35: 101923.
  • 35
    Courvalin P. Interpretive reading of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests (the antibiogramme). Clin Microbial Infect 1996;2(S1):S2634.
  • 36
    Courvalin P, Trieu-Cuot P. Minimizing potential resistance: the molecular view. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33(Suppl 3):S13846.
  • 37
    Cuchural GJ, Malamy MH Jr, Tally FP. Beta-lactamase-mediated imipenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1986;30: 64568.
  • 38
    Dahl KH, Simonsen GS, Olsvik Ø, Sundsfjord A. Heterogeneity in the vanB gene cluster of genomically diverse clinical strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43: 110510.
  • 39
    Dahl KH, Lundblad EW, Røkenes TP, Olsvik Ø, Sundsfjord A. Genetic linkage of the vanB2 gene cluster to Tn5382 in vancomycin-resistant enterococci and characterization of two novel insertion sequences. Microbiology 2000;146: 146979.
  • 40
    DANMAP 2002. Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, foods and humans in Denmark. ISSN 1600–2032.
  • 41
    Datta N, Kontomichalou P. Penicillinase synthesis controlled by infectious R factors in Enterobacteriaceae. Nature 1965;208: 23944.
  • 42
    Depardieu F, Bonora MG, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P. The vanG glycopeptide resistance operon from Enterococcus faecalis revisited. Mol Microbiol 2003;50: 9318.
  • 43
    Depardieu F, Perichon B, Courvalin P. Detection of the van alphabet of enterococci and staphylococci at the species level by multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42: 585760.
  • 44
    Derbise A, Dyke KG, El Solh N. Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus transposon Tn5407 carrying the aminoglycoside resistance genes, aphA-3 and aadE. Plasmid 1996;35: 17488.
  • 45
    Diekma DJ, Dodgson KJ, Sigurdarddottir B, Pfaller MA. Rapid detection of antimicrobial-resistant organism carriage: an unmet clinical need. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42: 287983.
  • 46
    Dutka-Malen S, Evers S, Courvalin P. Detection of glycopeptide resistance genotypes and identification to the species level of clinically relevant enterococci by PCR. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33: 247 and erratum 1434.
  • 47
    EARSS annual report 2002, Bilthoven, Nederland 2003. ISBN number:90–6960–107–9.
  • 48
    Edelstein M, Pimkin M, Edelsten I, Stratchounski. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of CTX-M extended-spectrum betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Russian hospitals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 372432.
  • 49
    Engemann JJ, Carmeli Y, Cosgrove SE, Fowler VG, Bronstein MZ, Trivette SL, Briggs JP, Sexton DJ, Kaye KS. Adverse clinical and economic outcomes attributable to methicillin resistance among patients with Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36: 5928.
  • 50
    . EPI-aktuelt 2003;2:40. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden. (In Swedish).
  • 51
    . EPI-NYT 2004;4. Statens Serum Institut, København, Denmark. (In Danish).
  • 52
    Fang H, Hedin G. Rapid screening and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from clinical samples by selective-broth and Real-Time PCR Assay. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41: 28949.
  • 53
    Fey PD, Said-Salim B, Rupp ME, Hinrichs SH, Boxrud DJ, Davis CC, Kreiswirth BN, Schlievert PM. Comparative molecular analysis of community- or hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 196203.
  • 54
    Fines M, Perichon B, Reynolds P, Sahm D, Courvalin P. VanE, a new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis BM4405. J Clin Microbiol 1999;43: 21614.
  • 55
    Fluit AC, Visser MR, Schmitz FJ. Molecular detection of antimicrobial resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001;14: 83671.
  • 56
    Francois P, Pittet D, Bento M, Pepey B, Vaudaux P, Lew D, Schrenzel J. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus auresus directly from sterile or nonsterile clinical samples by a new molecular assay. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41: 25460.
  • 57
    Francois P, Renzi G, Pittet D, Bento M, Lew D, Harbath S, Vaudaux P, Schrenzel J. A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for rapid typing of major staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42: 330912.
  • 58
    Garnier F, Taourit S, Glaser P, Courvalin P, Galimand M. Characterization of transposon Tn1549, conferring VanB-type resistance in Enterococcus spp. Microbiology 2000;146: 14819.
  • 59
    George R. Impact of molecular methods on clinical bacteriology. In: WoodfordN, JohnsonAP, editors. Methods in Molecular Medicine, Vol. 15: Molecular Bacteriology: Protocols and Clinical Applications. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press Inc., 1998: 115.
  • 60
    Giakkoupi P, Petrikkos G, Tzouvelekis LS, Tsonas S, Legakis NJ, Vatopoulos AC, WHONET GREECE Study group. Spread of integron-associated VIM-type metallo-beta-lactamase genes among imipenem-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Greek hospitals. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41: 8225.
  • 61
    Gibson JR, Saunders NA, Owen RJ. Novel method for rapid determination of clarithromycin sensitivity in Helicobacter pylori. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37: 37468.
  • 62
    Giovanetti E, Brenciani A, Lupidi R, Roberts M, Varaldo PE. Presence of the tet(O) gene in erythromycin- and tetracycline-resistant strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and linkage with either the mef(A) or the erm(A) gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 28449.
  • 63
    Giske CG, Rylander M, Kronvall G. VIM-4 in a carbapenem-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in Sweden. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 30345.
  • 64
    Haaheim H, Dahl KH, Simonsen GS, Olsvik Ø, Sundsfjord A. Long PCRs of transposons in the structural analysis of genes encoding acquired glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. BioTechniques 1998;24: 4327.
  • 65
    Hall RM, Stokes HW. Integrons: novel DNA elements which capture genes by site-specific recombination. Genetica 1993;90: 11532.
  • 66
    Hallin M, Maes N, Byl B, Jacobs F, De Gheldre Y, Struelens MJ. Clinical impact of a PCR assay for identification of Staphylococcus auresus and determination of methicillin resistance directly from blood cultures. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41: 39424.
  • 67
    Hancock REW, Speert DP. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: mechanisms and impact on treatment. Drug Res Update 2000;3: 24755.
  • 68
    Hanssen AM, Kjeldsen G, Ericson Sollid JU. Local variants of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec in sporadic methicillin-resistant Stahylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci: evidence for horizontal gene transfer? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48: 28596.
  • 69
    Hein I, Lehner A, Rieck P, Klein K, Brandl E, Wagner M. Comparison of different approaches to quantify Staphylococcus aureus by real-time quantitative PCR and application of this technique for examination of cheese. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001;67: 31226.
  • 70
    Heir E, Lindstedt BA, Leegaard TM, Gjernes E, Kapperud G. Prevalence and characterization of integrons in blood culture Enterobacteriaceae and gastrointestinal E. coli in Norway and reporting of a novel class 1 integron-located lincosamide resistance gene. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2004;3: 12.
  • 71
    Helfand MS, Bonomo RA. Beta-lactamases: a survey of protein diversity. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 2003;3: 923.
  • 72
    Hiramatsu K, Cui L, Kuroda M, Ito T. The emergence and evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Trends Microbiol 2001;9: 48693.
  • 73
    Hjelmevoll SO, Haaheim H, Haldorsen BC, Sundsfjord A. The SYBR-MRSA PCR – A multiplex verification method for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Abstract C-083, 103rd General meeting, American Society for Microbiology, 2003.
  • 74
    Hoorfar J, Malorny B, Abdulmawjood A, Cook N, Wagner M, Fach P. Practical considerations in design of internal amplification controls for diagnostic PCR assays. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42: 18638.
  • 75
    Huletsky A, Giroux R, Rossbach V, Gagnon M, Vaillancourt M, Bernier M, Gagnon F, Truchon K, Bastien M, Picard FJ, Van Belkum A, Ouellette M, Roy PH, Bergeron MG. New Real-Time PCR assay for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly from specimens containing a mixture of staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42: 187584.
  • 76
    Ito T, Okuma K, Ma XX, Yuzawa H, Hiramatsu K. Insights on antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from its whole genome: genomic island SCC. Drug Resist Updat 2003;6: 4152.
  • 76a. 
    Ito T, Ma XX, Takeuchi F, Okuma K, Yuzawa H, Hiramatsu K. Novel type V staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec driven by a novel cassette chromosome recombinase, ccrc. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48: 263751.
  • 77
    Jarlier V, Nicolas M, Nournier G, Philippon A. Extended broad-spectrum betalactamases conferring transferable resistance to newer betalactam agents in Enterobacteriaceae: hospital prevalence and susceptibility patterns. Rev Infect Dis 1988;10: 86778.
  • 78
    Jensen LB, Ahrens P, Dons L, et al. Molecular analysis of Tn1546 in Enterococcus faecium isolates from animals and humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42: 50714.
  • 79
    Johnsen P, Østerhus JI, Sletvold H, Sørum M, Kruse H, Nielsen K, Simonsen GS, Sundsfjord A. Persistence of animal and human glycopeptide resistent enterococci on two Norwegian poultry farms formerly exposed to avoparcin is associated with a widespread plasmid-mediated vanA-element within a polyclonal Enterococcus faecium population. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005 (in press).
  • 80
    Killgore GE, Holloway B, Tenover FC. A 5′ Nuclease PCR (TaqMan) high-throughput assay for detection of the mecA gene in staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38: 25169.
  • 81
    Kirkland KB, Weinstein JM. Adverse effect of contact isolation. Lancet 1999;354: 11778.
  • 82
    Kliebe C, Nies BA, Meyer JF, Tolxdorff-Neutzling RM, Wiedemann B. Evolution of plasmid-coded resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1985;28: 3027.
  • 83
    Klingenberg C, Glad TG, Olsvik Ø, Flaegstad T. Rapid PCR detection of the methicillin resistance gene, mecA, on the hands of medical and non-medical personnel and healthy children and on the surfaces in a noenatal intensive care unit. Scand J Infect Dis 2001;33: 4947.
  • 84
    Klingenberg C, Sundsfjord A, Rønnestad A, Mikalsen J, Peter Gaustad P, Flægstad T. Phenotypic and genotypic aminoglycoside resistance in blood culture isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci from a single neonatal intensive care unit, 1989–2000. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;54: 88996.
  • 85
    Lagally ET, Scjerer JR, Blazej RG, Toriello NM, Diep BA, Ramchandani M, Sensabaugh GF, Riley LW, Mathies RA. Integrated portable genetic analysis microsystem for pathogen/ infectious disease detection. Anal Chem 2004;76: 316270.
  • 86
    Lautenbach EJ, Patel B, Bilker WB, Edelstein PH, Fishman NO. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: risk factors for infection and impact of resistance on outcomes. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32: 116271.
  • 87
    Leclercq R, Derlot E, Duval J, et al. Plasmid-mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium. N Engl J Med 1988;319: 15761.
  • 88
    Leverstein-van Hall MA, Fluit AC, Paauw A, et al. Evaluation of the Etest ESBL and the BD Phoenix, VITEK 1, and VITEK 2 automated instruments for detection of extended-spectrum betalactamases in multiresistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40: 370311.
  • 89
    Leverstein-van Hall MA, Blok HEM, Rogier A, Donders RT, Paauw A, Fluit AC, Verhoef J. Multidrug resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is strongly associated with the presence of integrons and is independent of species or isolate origin. J Infect Dis 2003;187: 2519.
  • 90
    Levin BR, Lipsitch M, Perrot V, Schrag S, Antia R, Simonsen L, Walker NM, Stewart FM. The population genetics of antibiotic resistance. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24)Suppl 1):S9S16.
  • 91
    Levin BR, Perrot V, Walker N. Compensatory mutations, antibiotic resistance and the population genetics of adaptive evolution in bacteria. Genetics 2000;154: 98597.
  • 92
    Levy SB. Antibiotic resistance: an ecological imbalance. Ciba Found Symp 1997;207: 19.
  • 93
    Li XZ, Poole K, Nikaido H. Contributions of MexAB-OprM and an EmrE homolog to intrinsic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to aminoglycosides and dyes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 2733.
  • 94
    Lipschutz RJ, Morris D, Chee M, Hubbell E, Kozal MJ, Shah N, Shen N, Yang R, Fodor SPA. Using oligonucleotide arrays to assess genetic diversity. BioTechniques 1995;19: 4427.
  • 95
    Livermore DM. Betalactamases in laboratory and clinical practice. Clin Microbiol Rev 1995;8: 55784.
  • 96
    Livermore D, Brown D. Detection of β-lactamase-mediated resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001a;48(Suppl 1):5964.
  • 97
    Livermore DM, Winstanley TG, Shannon KP. Interpretative reading: recognizing the unusual and inferring resistance mechanisms from resistance phenotypes. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001b;48(Suppl 1):87102.
  • 98
    Livermore D. The impact of carbapenemases on antimicrobial development and therapy. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2002;3: 21824.
  • 99
    Louie L, Matsumura SO, Choi E, Louie M, Simor AE. Evaluation of three rapid methods for detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38: 21703.
  • 100
    Mackay IM. Real-time PCR in the microbiology laboratory. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004;10: 190212.
  • 101
    Maguire AJ, Brown FJ, Gray JJ, Desselberger U. Rapid screening technique for class 1 integron in Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria and its use in molecular epidemiology. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45: 10229.
  • 102
    Mah TF, Pitts B, Pellock B, Walker GC, Stewart PS, O'Toole GA. A genetic basis for Pseudomonas aeruginsa biofilm antibiotic resistance. Nature 2003;426: 30610.
  • 103
    Martineau F, Picard FJ, Lansac N, et al. Correlation between resistance genotype determined by multiplex PCR assays and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44: 2318.
  • 104
    Mathai E, Grape M, Kronvall G. Integrons and multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli causing community-acquired urinary tract infection in southern India. APMIS 2004;112: 15964.
  • 105
    Matsumura M, Hikiba Y, Ogura K, et al. Rapid detection of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori that confers resistance to clarithromycin treatment to the bacterium. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39: 6915.
  • 106
    McGowan JE. Economic impact of antimicrobial resistance. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7: 28692.
  • 107
    Miller GH, Sabatelli FJ, Hare RS, Glupczynski Y, Mackey P, Shlaes D, Shimizu K, Shaw KJ. The most frequent aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms – changes with time and geographic area: a reflection of aminoglycoside usage patterns? Clin Infect Dis 1997;24(Suppl 1):S4662.
  • 108
    Mohn SC, Ulvik A, Jureen R, Willems RJL, Top J, Leavis H, Harthug S, Langeland N. Duplex Real-Time PCR assay for rapid detection of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48: 55660.
  • 109
    Montanari MP, Cochetti I, Mingoia M, Varaldo PE. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 223641.
  • 110
    MSIS-Rapport 2003;31:34. National Institute for Public Health, Oslo, Norway. (In Norwegian).
  • 111
    Mullis KB, Faloona F. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalysed chain reaction. Meth Enzymol 1987;155: 33550.
  • 112
    Nandi S, Maurer JJ, Hofacre C, Summers AO. Gram-positive bacteria are a major reservoir of class 1 antibiotic resistance integrons in poultry litter. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2004;101: 711822.
  • 113
    Nesvera J, Hochmannova J, Patek M. An integron of class 1 is present on the plasmid pCG4 from Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1998;169: 3915.
  • 114
    Nikaido H. Multiple antibiotic resistance and efflux. Curr Opin Microbiol 1998;1: 51623.
  • 115
    Nordmann P, Poirel L. Emerging carbapenemases in Gram-negative aerobes. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002;8: 32131.
  • 116
    NORM/NORM-VET 2002. Consumption of Antimicrobial Agents and Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Norway. Tromsø/Oslo 2003. ISSN:1502–2307.
  • 117
    Nüesch-Inderbinen MT, Hächler FHKH. Detection of genes coding for extended-spectrum SHV beta-lactamases in clinical isolates by a molecular genetic method, and comparison with the Etest. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1996;15: 398402.
  • 118
    Oliveira DC, De Lencastre H. Multiplex PCR strategy for rapid identification of structural types and variants of the mec element in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002a;46: 215561.
  • 119
    Oliveira DC, Tomasc A, De Lencastre H. Secrets of success of a human pathogen: molecular evolution of pandemic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 2002b;2: 1809.
  • 120
    Oliver A, Weigel LM, Tenover TM, et al. Mechanisms of decreased susceptibility to cefpodoxime in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46: 382936.
  • 121
    Ounissi H, Derlot E, Carlier C, Courvalin P. Gene homogeneity for aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in gram-positive cocci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990;34: 21648.
  • 122
    Palladino S, Kay ID, Flexman JP, Boehm I, Costa AMG, Lambert EJ, Christiansen KJ. Rapid detection of vanA and vanB genes directly from clinical specimens and enrichment broths by Real-Time multiplex PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41: 23836.
  • 123
    Patel R, Uhl JR, Kohner P, Hopkins MK, Cockerill III FR. Multiplex PCR detection of vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC2/3 genes in enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35: 7037.
  • 124
    Patel R, Uhl JR, Kohner P, Hopkins PMK, Steckelberg JM, Kline B, Cockerill FR III. DNA sequence variation within vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes of clinical Enterococcus isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42: 2025.
  • 125
    Paterson DL, Ko WC, Gottberg AV, et al. Outcome of cephalosporin treatment for serious infections due to apparently susceptible organisms producing extended-spectrum betalactamases. Implications for the clinical microbiology laboratory. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39: 220612.
  • 126
    Paule SM, Trick WE, Tenover FC, Lankford M, Cunningham S, Stosor V, Cordell RL, Peterson LR. Comparison of PCR assay to culture for surveillance detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41: 48057.
  • 127
    Paulsen IT. Multidrug efflux pumps and resistance: regulation and evolution. Curr Opin Microbiol 2003;6: 44651.
  • 128
    Pèrez-Roth E, Claverie-Martìn F, Villar J, Mèndez-Àlvarez S. Multiplex PCR for simultaneous identification of Staphylococcus aureus and detection of methicillin and mupirocin resistance. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39: 403741.
  • 129
    Perichon B, Reynolds P, Courvalin P. VanD-type glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium BM4339. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997;41: 20168.
  • 130
    Potz NA, Colman M, Warner M, Reynolds R, Livermore DM. False-positive extended-spectrum beta-lactamase tests for Klebsiella oxytoca strains hyperproducing K1 beta-lactamase. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;53: 5457.
  • 131
    Poulsen RL, Pallesen LV, Frimodt-Moller N, Espersen F. Detection of clinical vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Denmark by multiplex PCR and sandwich hybridization. APMIS 1999;107: 40412.
  • 132
    Predari SC, Ligozzi M, Fontana R. Genotypic identification of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991;35: 256873.
  • 133
    Randegger CC, Hachler H. Real-time PCR and melting curve analysis for reliable and rapid detection of SHV extended-spectrum b-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chem 2001;45: 17306.
  • 134
    Rasheed JK, Tenover FC. Detection and characterization of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria. In: MurrayPR, BaronEJ, JorgensenJH, PfallerMA, YolkenRH, editors. Man Clin Microbiol 8th ed., Vol 1. American Society for Microbiology: Washington DC, 2003: 1196212.
  • 135
    Reischl U, Linde HJ, Metz M, Leppmeier B, Lehn N. Rapid identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and simultaneous species confirmation using realtime fluorescence PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38: 242933.
  • 136
    Rice L, Bonomo RA. Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. In: LorianV, editor. Antibiotics in laboratory medicine 4th ed.. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996: 453501.
  • 137
    Rice LB. The Tn916 family of conjugative transposons and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42: 18717.
  • 138
    Rice LB. Bacterial monopolists: the bundling and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes in gram-positive bacteria. Clin Infect Dis 2000a;31: 7629.
  • 139
    Rice LB, Bonomo RA. Beta-lactamases: which ones are clinically important? Drug Res Update 2000b;3: 17889.
  • 140
    Rice L, Sahm D, Bonomo RA. Mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial agents. In: MurrayPR, BaronEJ, JorgensenJH, PfallerMA, YolkenRH, editors. Man Clin Microbiol 8th ed. Vol 1. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology, 2003: 1074101.
  • 141
    Roberts MC, Sutcliffe J, Courvalin P, Jensen LB, Rood J, Seppälä H. Nomenclature for macrolide and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance determinants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43: 282330.
  • 142
    Ronaghi M, Uhlen M, Nyren P. A sequencing method based on real-time pyrophosphate. Science 1998;281: 3635.
  • 143
    Ronaghi M, Elahi E. Pyrosequencing for microbial typing. J Chromatography 2002;782: 6772.
  • 144
    Rowe-Magnus DA, Mazel D. Integrons: natural tools for bacterial genome evolution. Curr Opin Microbiol 2001;4: 5659.
  • 145
    Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Ehrlich HA. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science 1988;239: 48791.
  • 146
    Shaw KJ, Rather PN, Hare RS, Miller GH. Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familiar relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Microbiol Rev 1993;57: 13863.
  • 147
    Shrestha NK, Tuohy MJ, Hall GS, Isada CM, Procop GW. Rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus and the mecA gene from BacT/ALERT blood culture bottles by using the LightCycler system. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40: 265961.
  • 148
    Schiappa DA, Hayden MK, Matushek MG, et al. Ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli bloodstream infection: a case-control and molecular epidemiologic investigation. J Infect Dis 1996;174: 52936.
  • 149
    Schmitz FJ, Fluit AC., Gondolf M, Beyrau R, Lindenlauf E, Verhoef J, Heinz HP, Jones ME. The prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance and corresponding resistance genes in clinical isolates of staphylococci from 19 European hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999;43: 2539.
  • 150
    Senda K, Arakawa Y, Ichiyama S, Nakashima K, Ito H, Ohsuka S, Shimokata K, Kato N, Ohta M. PCR detection of metallo-β-lactamase gene (blaIMP) in gram-negative rods resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactams. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34: 290913.
  • 151
    Shibata N, Doi Y, Yamane K, Yagi T, Kurokawa H, Shibayama K, Kato H, Kai K, Arakawa Y. PCR typing of genetic determinants for metallo-beta-lactamases and integrases carried by gram-negative bacteria isolated in Japan, with focus on the class 3 integron. J Clin Microb 2003;41: 540713.
  • 152
    Simonsen GS, Myhre MRM, Dahl KH, Olsvik Ø, Sundsfjord A. Typeability of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci using long-range PCRs and specific analysis of polymorphic regions. Microb Drug Resist 2000;6: 4958.
  • 153
    Simonsen GS, Småbrekke L, Monnet DL, Møller JK, Sørensen TL, Kristinsson KG, Lagerkvist-Widh A, Torell E, Digranes A, Harthug S, Sundsfjord A. Prevalence of resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin and vancomycin in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from clinical specimens and use of antimicrobials in five Nordic hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;51: 32331.
  • 154
    Sinclair A, Arnold C, Woodford N. Rapid detection and estimation by pyrosequencing of 23S rRNA genes with a single nucleotide polymorphism conferring linezolid resisistance in enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 36202.
  • 155
    Siu LK, Lu PL, Hsueh PR, Lin FM, Chang SC, Luh KT, Ho M, Lee CY. Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in a pediatric oncology ward: clinical features and identification of different plasmids carrying both SHV-5 and TEM-1 genes. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37: 40207.
  • 156
    Stinear TP, Olden DC, Johnsen PDR, Davies JK, Grayson ML. Enterococcal vanB resistance locus in anaerobic bacteria in human feces. Lancet 2001;367: 8556.
  • 157
    Strommenger B, Kettlitz C, Werner G, Witte W. Multiplex PCR assay for stimultaneous detection of nine clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus auresus. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41: 408994.
  • 158
    Sundsfjord A, Simonsen GS, Courvalin P. Human infections caused by glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus spp: are they a zoonosis? Clin Microbiol Infect 2001;7(Suppl 4):1633.
  • 159
    Suppola JP, Kolho E, Salmenlinna S, Tarkka E, Vuopio-Varkila J, Vaara M. vanA and vanB incorporate into an endemic ampicillin-resistant vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium strain: effect on interpretation of clonality. J Clin Microb 199;37: 39349.
  • 160
    Swedres 2002. A report on Swedish Antibiotic Utilisation and Resistance in Human Medicine. The Swedish Strategic Programme for the rational Use of Antimicrobial Agents (STRAMA) and the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, 2003 Solna. ISSN 1400–2003.
  • 161
    Swenson JM, Hindler JF, Jorgensen JH. Special phenotypic methods for detecting antimicrobial resistance, p. 1178–95. In: MurrayPR, BaronEJ, JorgensenJH, PfallerMA, YolkenRH, editors. Man Clin Microbiol 8th ed. Vol 1. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology, 2003: 117895.
  • 162
    Tan TY, Corden S, Barnes R, Cookson B. Rapid identifycation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from positive blood cultures by real-time fluorescence PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39: 452931.
  • 163
    Tofteland S, Haldorsen B, Dahl K, Simonsen GS, Steinbakk M, Walsh T, Sundsfjord A. CTX-M is the dominating extended-spectrum betalactamase type in Norwegian clinical ESBL-producing isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. P755. 14th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Prague, 2004.
  • 164
    Toleman MA, Simm AM, Murphy TA, Gales AC, Biedenbach DJ, Ronald N, Jones RN, Walsh TR. Molecular characterisation of SPM-1, a novel metallo-β-lactamase isolated in Latin America: report from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. J Antimicrob Chemother 2002;50: 6739.
  • 165
    Toleman MA, Biedenbach DJ, Bennett D, Jones RN, Walsh TR. Genetic characterization of a novel blaIMP-13, harboured by a novel Tn5051-type transposon disseminating carbapenemase genes in Europe: report from the SENTRY worldwide antimicrobial surveillance programme. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52: 58390.
  • 166
    Toleman MA, Rolston K, Jones RN, Walsh TR. BlaVIM-7, an evolutionary distinct metallo-β-lactamase gene in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48: 39242.
  • 167
    Torell E, Fredlund H, Tornquist E, Myhre E, Sjøberg L, Sundsfjord A. Intrahospital spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis 1997;29: 25963.
  • 168
    Udo EE, Dashti AA. Detection of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in staphylococci by polymerase chain reaction and dot blot hybridization. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2000;13: 2739.
  • 169
    Uttley AH, Collins CH, Naidoo J, et al. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet 1988;1: 578.
  • 170
    Vakulenko SB, Donabedian SM, Voskresenskiy AM, Zervos MJ, Lerner SA, Chow JW. Multiplex PCR for detection of aminoglycoside resistance genes in enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47: 14236.
  • 171
    Vannuffel P, Gigi J, Ezzedine H, Vandercam B, Delmee M, Wauters G, Gala JL. Specific detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species by multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33: 28647.
  • 172
    Vercauteren E, Descheemaeker P, Leven M, Sanders CC, Gossens H. Comparison of screening methods for the detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and their prevalence among blood isolates in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in a Belgian teaching hospital. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35: 21917.
  • 173
    Villedieu A, Diaz-Torres ML, Roberts AP, Hunt N, McNab, Spratt D, Wilson M, Mullany P. Genetic basis of erythromycin resistance in oral bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48: 229801.
  • 174
    Walsh TR, Bolmstrom A, Owarnstrom A, Gales A. Evaluation of Etest for detecting metallo-beta-lactamases in routine clinical testing. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40: 27559.
  • 175
    Wendelbo O, Jureen R, Eide GE, Digranes A, Langeland N, Harthug S. Outbreak of infection with high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (HLGRE) in a Norwegian hospital. Clin Microb Infect 2003;9: 6629.
  • 176
    Wertheim H, Verbrugh HA, Van Pelt C, De Man P, Van Belkum A, Vos MC. Improved detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using phenyl mannitol broth containing aztreonam and ceftizoxime. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39: 26602.
  • 177
    White PA, McIver CJ, Rawlinson WD. Integrons and gene cassettes in the Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45: 265861.
  • 178
    Willems R, Top J, Van den Braak N, Van Belkum A, et al. Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in enterococci from humans and animals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43: 48391.
  • 179
    Willey BM, Kreiswirth BN, Simor AE, Williams G, Scriver SR, Phillips A, Low DE. Detection of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30: 51723.
  • 180
    Woodford N, Adebiyl AMA, Palepou MFI, et al. Diversity of VanA glycopeptide resistance elements in enterococci from humans and non-human sources. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42: 5028.
  • 181
    Woodford N, Tysall L, Auckland C, et al. Detection of oxazolidinone-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains by real-time PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40: 4298300.
  • 182
    World Health Organization. WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2001.
  • 183
    Wu L, Thompson DK, Li G, Hurt RA, Tiedje JM, Zhou J. Development and evaluation of functional gene arrays for detection of selected genes in the environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001;67: 578090.
  • 184
    Yokoyama K, Doi Y, Yamane K, Kurokawa H, Shibata N, Shibayama K, Yagi T, Kato H, Arakawa Y. Acquisition of 16S rRNA methylase gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lancet 2003;362: 188893.
  • 185
    Young D, Lee K, Yum JH, Shin HB, Rossolini GM, Chong Y. Imipenem-EDTA disk method for differentiation of metallo-β-lactamase-producing clinical isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40: 379801.