• 1
    LevyAD, HarckeHT, GetzJM, MallakCT, CarusoJL, PearseL, et al.Virtual autopsy: two-and three-dimensional multidetector CT findings in drowning with autopsy comparison. Radiology2007;243:862–8.
  • 2
    AghayevE, YenK, SonnenscheinM, OzdobaC, ThaliM, JackowskiC, et al.Virtopsy post-mortem multi-slice computed tomograhy (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating descending tonsillar herniation: comparison to clinical studies. Neuroradiology2004;46:55964.
  • 3
    PerssonA, JackowskiC, EngstromE, ZachrissonH. Advances of dual source, dual-energy imaging in postmortem CT. Eur J Radiol2008;68:44655.
  • 4
    ShiotaniS, KohnoM, OhashiN, YamazakiK, NakayamaH, WatanabeK, et al.Non-traumatic postmortem computed tomographic (PMCT) findings of the lung. Forensic Sci Int2004;139:3948.
  • 5
    AghayevE, SonnenscheinM, JackowskiC, ThaliM, BuckU, YenK, et al.Postmortem radiology of fatal hemorrhage: measurements of cross-sectional areas of major blood vessels and volumes of aorta and spleen on MDCT and volumes of heart chambers on MRI. Am J Roentgenol2006;187:209.
  • 6
    JackowskiC, ThaliM, SonnenscheinM, AghayevE, YenK, DirnhoferR, et al.Visualization and quantification of air embolism structure by processing postmortem MSCT data. J Forensic Sci2004;49:1339.
  • 7
    DirnhoferR, JackowskiC, VockP, PotterK, ThaliMJ. VIRTOPSY: minimally invasive, imaging-guided virtual autopsy. Radiographics2006;26:130533.
  • 8
    JackowskiC, ThaliMJ, BuckU, AghayevE, SonnenscheinM, YenK, et al.Noninvasive estimation of organ weights by postmortem magnetic resonance imaging and multislice computed tomography. Invest Radiol2006;41:57278.
  • 9
    JackowskiC, ChristeA, SonnenscheinM, AghayevE, ThaliMJ. Postmortem unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial infarction in correlation to histological infarction age characterization. Eur Heart J2006;27:245967.
  • 10
    LoughreyM, McCluggageW, TonerP. The declining autopsy rate and clinicians’ attitudes. Ulster Med J2000;69:839.
  • 11
    ShojaniaKG, BurtonEC. The vanishing nonforensic autopsy. N Engl J Med2008;358:8735.
  • 12
    ShojaniaK, BurtonE, McDonaldK, GoldmanL. Overestimation of clinical diagnostic performance caused by low necropsy rates [Internet]. Qual Saf Health Care2005;14:40813.
  • 13
    ShojaniaKG, BurtonEC. The persistent value of the autopsy. Am Fam Physician2004;69:25403.
  • 14
    ShojaniaK, BurtonE. Review-changes in rates of autopsy-detected diagnostic errors over time: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association2003;28:284956.
  • 15
    WardHE, ClarkeBE, ZimmermanPV, ClearyMI. The decline in hospital autopsy rates in 2001. Med J Aust2002;176:91.
  • 16
    RoulsonJ, BenbowEW, HasletonPS. Discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnosis and the value of post mortem histology; a meta-analysis and review. Histopathology2005;47:5519.
  • 17
    BurtonJL, UnderwoodJ. Clinical, educational, and epidemiological value of autopsy. Lancet2007;369:147180.
  • 18
    ThayyilS, RobertsonNJ, SebireNJ, TaylorAM. Post-mortem MR and CT imaging in fetuses, newborns and children: an evidenced based approach. Diagn Histopathol2010;16:56572.
  • 19
    LjungP, WinskogC, PerssonA, LundstromC, YnnermanA. Full body virtual autopsies using a state-of-the-art volume rendering pipeline. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph2006;12:86976.
  • 20
    JacobsenC, BechBH, LynnerupN. A comparative study of cranial, blunt trauma fractures as seen at medicolegal autopsy and by computed tomography. BMC Med Imaging2009;9:18.
  • 21
    JacobsenC, LynnerupN. Craniocerebral trauma-congruence between post-mortem computed tomography diagnoses and autopsy results: a 2-year retrospective study. Forensic Sci Int2010;194:914.
  • 22
    PlattnerT, ThaliMJ, YenK, SonnenscheinM, StoupisC, VockP, et al.Virtopsy-postmortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a fatal scuba diving incident. J Forensic Sci2003;48:134755.
  • 23
    AghayevE, YenK, SonnenscheinM, JackowskiC, ThaliM, VockP, et al.Pneumomediastinum and soft tissue emphysema of the neck in postmortem CT and MRI; a new vital sign in hanging?Forensic Sci Int2005;153:1818.
  • 24
    JackowskiC, PerssonA, ThaliMJ. Whole body postmortem angiography with a high viscosity contrast agent solution using poly ethylene glycol as contrast agent dissolver. J Forensic Sci2008;53:4658.
  • 25
    JackowskiC, WarntjesMJB, BergeJ, BärW, PerssonA. Magnetic resonance imaging goes postmortem: noninvasive detection and assessment of myocardial infarction by postmortem MRI. Eur Radiol2010;21:708.
  • 26
    RuderTD, HatchGM, SiegenthalerL, AmpanoziG, MathierS, ThaliMJ, et al.The influence of body temperature on image contrast in post mortem MRI. Eur J Radiol2011.
  • 27
    ThaliM, YenK, SchweitzerW, VockP, OzdobaC, DirnhoferR. Into the decomposed body-forensic digital autopsy using multislice-computed tomography. Forensic Sci Int2003;134:10914.
  • 28
    TakatoriT. Investigations on the mechanism of adipocere formation and its relation to other biochemical reactions. Forensic Sci Int1996;80:4961.
  • 29
    O’DonnellCJ, BakerMA. Postmortem CT findings of “gastromalacia”: a trap for the radiologist with forensic interest. Forensic Sci Med Pathol2010;6:2937.
  • 30
    PreimB, BartzD. Visualization in medicine. Theory, algorithms, and applications. Series in computer graphics. Morgan Kaufmann; 2007. ISBN 978-0-12-370596-9
  • 31
    RobbRA. Three-dimensional visualization in medicine and biology. In: BankmanIN, editors. Handbook of Medical Imaging – Processing and Analysis. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000: 685712.
  • 32
    ThaliMJ, BraunM, BuckU, AghayevE, JackowskiC, VockP, et al.VIRTOPSY: scientific documentation, reconstruction and animation in forensic: Individual and real 3D data based geo-metric approach including opticalbody/object surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning. J Forensic Sci50:42842.
  • 33
    DrebinRA, CarpenterL, HanrahanP. Volume rendering. In: ACM Siggraph Computer Graphics. ACM, 1988: 6574.
  • 34
    EngelK, HadwigerM, KnissJ, Rezk-SalamaC, WeiskopfD. Real-Time Volume Graphics. Natick: A.K. Peters, Ltd, 2006.
  • 35
    KnissJ, KindlmannG, HansenC. Multidimensional transfer functions for interactive volume rendering. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph2002;8:27085.
  • 36
    LundströmC, LjungP, YnnermanA. Local histograms for design of transfer functions in direct volume rendering. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph2006;12:15709.
  • 37
    PatelD, HaidacherM, BalabanianJ. Moment curves. IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium2009;2018.
  • 38
    HaidacherM, BrucknerS, KanitsarA, GröllerM. Information-based transfer functions for multimodal visualization. Proceedings of Visual Computing for Biomedicine 2008;(April 2008): 1018.
  • 39
    LindholmS, LjungP, LundstromC, PerssonA, YnnermanA. Spatial conditioning of transfer functions using local material distributions. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph2010;16:130110.
  • 40
    LundströmC, LjungP, YnnermanA. Multi-dimensional transfer function design using sorted histograms. In: Proceedings Eurographics/IEEE Workshop on Volume Graphics 2006. 2006: 18.
  • 41
    LangerMS, BülthoffH. Perception of shape from shading on a cloudy day. Technical report no. 73. Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik. 1999.
  • 42
    PhongB. Illumination for computer generated pictures. Communications of the ACM1975;18:3117
  • 43
    BlinnJF. Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures. In: Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques. ACM; 1977. 1928.
  • 44
    HernellF, LjungP, YnnermanA. Local ambient occlusion in direct volume rendering. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph2010;16:54859.
  • 45
    KronanderJ, JonssonD, LowJ, LjungP, YnnermanA, UngerJ. Efficient visibility encoding for dynamic illumination in direct volume rendering. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph2011; 17.
  • 46
    Sectra visualization table: enabling virtual autopsies [Internet]. (accessed 10 June 2011).
  • 47
    HancockMS, CarpendaleS, VernierFD, WigdorD. Rotation and translation mechanisms for tabletop interaction. First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems (TABLETOP ‘06). 2006;79–88.