Objectives: The aim of the following investigation was to quantify the resorption rate of tissue-engineered bone grafts in the maxillary sinus using volume measurements.
Material and methods: Sinus floor augmentation using autologous bone grafts from the iliac crest (n=17, group 1) was compared with commercially produced transplants of human cells seeded on polyglycolid–polylactid (PLGA) scaffolds (Oral Bone®) (n=14, group 2).
Results: The total resorption rate for autologous transplants 3 months post operation was 29%, while the tissue-engineered bone showed a resorption rate of 90%.
The autologous bone had a bone density of up to 266–551 Hounsfield units (HU), while sufficient mineralization of tissue-engineered bone was found in only one case (152 HU).
Conclusion: In this clinical study, the use of autologous cancellous bone grafts in sinus augmentation was more reliable than scaffolds containing cultured osteoblasts. Further tissue-engineered bone transplants should be examined to draw general conclusions about the use of tissue-engineered grafts compared with autologous bone grafts for maxillary sinus augmentation.