Aim: The aim of this study was to study the effect on early bone formation resulting from the placement of a xenograft in the fresh extraction socket in dogs.
Material and methods: Five beagle dogs were used. The distal roots of the third and fourth mandibular premolars were removed. In one quadrant, a graft consisting of Bio-Oss® Collagen was placed in the fresh extraction wound, while the corresponding premolar sites in the contra-lateral jaw quadrant were left non-grafted. After 2 weeks of healing, the dogs were perfused with a fixative, the mandibles removed, the experimental sites dissected, demineralized, sectioned in the mesio-distal plane and stained in hematoxyline–eosine.
Results: The central portion of the non-grafted sockets was occupied by a provisional matrix comprised of densely packed connective tissue fibers and mesenchymal cells. Apical and lateral to the provisional matrix, newly formed woven bone was found to occupy most of the sockets. In the apical part of the grafted sockets, no particles of the xenograft could be observed but newly formed bone was present in this portion of the experimental site. In addition, limited numbers of woven bone trabeculae occurred along the lateral socket walls. The central and marginal segments of the grafted sockets, however, were occupied by a non-mineralized connective tissue that enclosed Bio-Oss® particles that frequently were coated by multinucleated cells.
Conclusions: The placement of Bio-Oss® Collagen in the fresh extraction wound obviously delayed socket healing. Thus, after 2 weeks of tissue repair, only minute amounts of newly formed bone occurred in the apical and lateral borders of the grafted sockets, while large amounts of woven bone had formed in most parts of the non-grafted sites.