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Comparative histological results of different biomaterials used in sinus augmentation procedures: a human study at 6 months


Corresponding author:

Giovanna Iezzi

Via dei Vestini 31

66100 Chieti, Italy

Tel.: 0039 0871 3554083

Fax: 0039 0871 3554076



Various grafts or combination of graft materials have been used in sinus floor augmentations, and human histological reports on their performance are available, although limited in number. Histological analysis of the regenerated tissues will provide useful information regarding the nature and amount of newly formed bone. Aim of the present study was a histological and histomorphometric evaluation, in humans, of specimens retrieved from sinuses augmented with phycogene hydroxyapatite, biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics, calcium carbonate, porcine bone and anorganic bovine bone, after a healing period of 6 months.

Materials and methods

A total of 15 patients, undergoing 30 sinus augmentation procedures with five different biomaterials, participated in this study. A total of 82 titanium dental implants were inserted in the augmented sinuses after a healing period of 6 months. A total of 60 bone cores, 2 for each augmented sinus, 12 for every biomaterial, were retrieved and all were stored immediately in 10% buffered formalin and processed to obtain thin ground sections.


In all biomaterials, many grafted particles were lined and, sometimes, bridged by newly formed bone. Some biomaterials particles appeared to be partially resorbed and substituted by newly formed bone. Histomorphometry showed that, in all biomaterials, newly formed bone and residual grafted material particles represented about 30%.


Longer term histological and histomorphometric studies will be necessary to understand better the resorption times of all these biomaterials. The high interconnecting microporosity allowed, in all the present biomaterials, the ingrowth of newly formed bone and vessels in the pores of the partially resorbed particles. In conclusion, within the limitations of the present study, the data provided support the fact that all these biomaterials can be used, successfully, in sinus augmentation procedures.

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