Prevalence and risk factors for peri-implant disease in Belgian adults


Corresponding author

Alexandra Marrone

Department of Periodontology

Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

Avenue Hippocrate 10

B-1200, Belgium

Tel.: +3227645719

Fax: +3227645722




This study aimed to evaluate in a Belgian population the frequence of mucositis and peri-implantitis in patients with implants of at least 5 years of function. Another outcome was to access implants/patients characteristics as possible risk indicators for peri-implantitis.

Material and methods

One hundred and three patients (38 males/65 females) with a total of 266 implants were examined. Implants had been inserted in university hospitals as well as in private clinics and the mean time of implants in function was 8.5 years (±3.2). The average patients' age within the population was 62 years (±13.4). General health informations were recorded as well as habits regarding smoking, maintenance visits and oral hygiene. Full mouth clinical parameters (PlI, BoP, PPD) were assessed and radiographs taken to determine the periodontal status and implants diagnosis.


Prevalences of mucositis and peri-implantitis at the patient's level were respectively 31% and 37%. They were 38% and 23% at the implant's level. Subjects older than 65 years (OR = 1.39) and those with active periodontitis (OR = 1.98) were prone to peri-implantitis. The association was stronger for hepatitis (OR = 2.92) and totally edentulous patients (OR = 5.56). Finally, at the implant's level, a significant correlation was found in the multi-level analyses between rough surfaces, overdentures and peri-implantitis.


After 8.5 years an important proportion (±60%) of implants presented biological complications. Furthermore, a positive correlation was showed between age, periodontitis, absence of teeth, rough surfaces and peri-implantitis. Consequently, patients with such characteristics should be informed before implant placement and frequently re-called after for maintenance visits.