Smoking cessation increases gingival blood flow and gingival crevicular fluid
Article first published online: 18 FEB 2004
Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Volume 31, Issue 4, pages 267–272, April 2004
How to Cite
Morozumi, T., Kubota, T., Sato, T., Okuda, K. and Yoshie, H. (2004), Smoking cessation increases gingival blood flow and gingival crevicular fluid. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 31: 267–272. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2004.00476.x
- Issue published online: 9 MAR 2004
- Article first published online: 18 FEB 2004
- Accepted for publication 26 May 2003
- gingival blood flow;
- gingival crevicular fluid;
- smoking cessation
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of smoking cessation on gingival blood flow (GBF) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
Material and Methods: Sixteen male smokers (aged 22–39 (25.3±4.0) years), with no clinical signs of periodontal and systemic diseases, were recruited. The experiment was performed before (baseline) and at 1, 3 and 5 days, and at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after smoking cessation. The status of smoking and smoking cessation was verified by exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, and by serum nicotine and cotinine concentrations. A laser Doppler flowmeter was used to record relative blood flow continuously, on three gingival sites of the left maxillary central incisor (mid-labial aspect of the gingival margin and bilateral interdental papillae). The GCF was collected at the mesio- and disto-labial aspects of the left maxillary central incisor and the volume was calculated by the Periotron 6000® system. The same measurements except for the GBF were performed on 11 non-smoking controls (four females and seven males), aged 23–27 (24.4±1.2) years.
Results: Eleven of 16 smokers successfully completed smoking cessation for 8 weeks. At 1 day after smoking cessation, there was a significantly lower CO concentration than at baseline (p<0.01). Also, nicotine and cotinine concentrations markedly decreased at the second measurement. The GBF rate of smokers was significantly higher at 3 days after smoking cessation compared to the baseline (p<0.01). While the GCF volume was significantly increased at 5 days after smoking cessation compared to the baseline (p<0.01), it was significantly lower than that of non-smokers until 2 weeks after smoking cessation (p<0.01).
Conclusion: The results show that the gingival microcirculation recovers to normal in the early stages of smoking cessation, which could activate the gingival tissues metabolism/remodeling, and contribute to periodontal health.