Journal of Clinical Periodontology

Association between passive smoking and salivary markers related to periodontitis


Satoshi Shizukuishi
Department of Preventive Dentistry
Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry
1-8, Yamadaoka
Suita, Osaka 565-0871


Objectives: The mechanism of passive smoking in terms of development of periodontitis has not been investigated. This study examined the effect of passive smoking on salivary markers related to periodontitis.

Methods: Periodontal status was evaluated on the basis of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level in 273 workers. Salivary marker levels were determined by enzyme assay including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Six periodontal pathogens in saliva were assessed using real-time PCR methodology. Non-, passive and active smokers were defined as subjects exhibiting salivary cotinine levels of 0 (53 subjects), 1–7 (118) and geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted8 ng/ml (102).

Results: Levels of salivary markers, including IL-1β, lactoferrin, albumin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), were elevated significantly in passive smokers relative to non-smokers. Additionally, these marker levels, with the exception of IL-1β, decreased significantly in active smokers in comparison with passive smokers. However, no meaningful differences in percentages of periodontal pathogens were observed between non- and passive smokers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed for each marker utilizing age, gender, cotinine level and periodontal status as independent variables. IL-1β, albumin and AST were independently associated with cotinine level.

Conclusion: Passive smoke exposure leads to elevation of IL-1β, albumin and AST levels in saliva.