Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of peri-implant disease and analyse possible risk variables associated with peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. The study group consisted of 212 partially edentulous subjects rehabilitated with osseointegrated implants.
Material and Methods: The implants placed were examined clinically and radiographically to assess the peri-implant status. The degree of association between peri-implant disease and various independent variables was investigated using a multinomial regression analysis.
Results: The prevalence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis were 64.6% and 8.9%, respectively. In univariate modelling, healthy peri-implant subjects presented lower plaque scores, less periodontal bleeding on probing, and less time elapsed since placement of supra-structures. In multivariate analyses, the risk variables associated with increased odds for having peri-implant disease included: gender, plaque scores, and periodontal bleeding on probing. Presence of periodontitis and diabetes were statistically associated with increased risk of peri-implantitis. The only two factors, which did not contribute to the presence of the disease, were the time elapsed since placement of supra-structures and the frequency of visits for maintenance care.
Conclusion: Our data suggest that subjects with periodontitis, diabetes, and poor oral hygiene were more prone to develop peri-implantitis.